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Rivers of Tamil Nadu
Bhavani rises in the silent valley in Palghat ranges in the neighbouring state of Kerala, after receiving Siruvani, it flows into Coimbatore District where it gets reinforced by the Kundah River before entering Erode District in Gopichettipalaiyam. Bhavani is more or less a perennial river fed mostly by the South West monsoon. North East monsoon also supplements its water resources. This river runs for over hundred miles through Erode traversing through Bhavani and Gopichettipalaiyam Taluks ( also spelt as Taluka ). It feeds the Bhavanisagar reservoir, which takes an easterly course flowing through Gopichettipalaiyam, Satyamangalam and Bhavani Taluks, before it ultimately joins river Kaveri on the Salem borders.
Kaveri is among the most sacred rivers of India and is known as “the Dakshina Ganga” or “Ganga of the South”. It flows through a length of 760 – kms covering Karnataka And Tamil Nadu and its main tributaries are Bhavani, Noyil, Amaravati and Kollitam.
In Coorg district of Karnataka, Kaveri has its origin in Talakaveri at the height of 1,341 meters. The first dam built on this river is ” Krishnaraj Sagar ” at 19 – km from Mysore where it meets with Hemawati and Laxmantirth rivers. After 25 – km from Srirangapatnam it meets Kabini and Suvarnawati rivers and near Shivsamundaram, it falls from the height of 90 metres and creates many beautiful waterfalls and springs. At 64 kms from this place, it forms the border of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Here, it meets with Simsa and Akrawati rivers. In Tamil Nadu, it flows in east direction but from Hogenakkel waterfalls, it flows in south direction. At 45 – km from Maitoor, it meets with its main assistant river Bhavani. When it enters into Tiruchirapalli District, it meets with Noyil and Amaravati rivers. Here it is the widest of whole of its path and hence, it is called “Akhand Kaveri”. After Tirucharapalli, it divides into two branches. Upper branch is called ‘Kaileroon’ and falls in Bay of Bengal near Portonova. Southern branch is called ‘Kaveri’, which also falls in Bay of Bengal near Taranqubar.
Noyil River, a tributary of Kaveri is noted for its capricious nature. This is fed mostly by the Southwest monsoon but the Northeast monsoon brings rains and this very often results in floods. Inspite of its unpredictable character, the river helps to irrigate considerable areas in Palladam Taluk of Coimbatore District and Dharapuram Taluk of Erode.
Cheyyar, Thcnpennai, Ramandala Nagu, Thurinjalaru and Suganadhi are the important seasonal rivers flowing in Tiruvannamalai district. Cheyyar is a tributary of Palar, which originates in Kolar. River Cheyyar flows through Chengam Taluk of Tiruvannamalai district. It receives rain during the Northeast and Southwest monsoon periods. Cheyyar River passes through several villages of Chengam Taluk, and is the major source of irrigation. The Taluk has different types of soil, such as black, red loam and sandy loam. Major crops raised in the Taluk are paddy and groundnut. Magaral lies on the northern banks of Cheyyar River. Across the river lies the Kadambarkoyil temple.
Palar River rises in the Eastern Ghats near Coimbatore, runs through Vellore and Chingelput districts of Tamil Nadu and terminates into the Bay of Bengal near Caturangapattinam.
Palar River used to supply good drinking water to 30 towns on its banks and 50 villages surrounding it. The Palar river water was also used by the villagers to cultivate their land. Now, there are a number of tanneries on the banks of the River Palar. They let out the effluents in the Palar River. So, now the river water has been polluted and it is not useful for drinking or agricultural purposes. Due to pollution, the people are suffering from a number of diseases like asthma, skin disease and stomach ailment, etc. Thousands of acres of fertile land have become wasteland and it is not used for cultivation.
The river Tambaraparani ( Now people call Tambaraparani as Thamirabarani ) originates on the eastern slopes of Western Ghats in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. The origins of Tambarabarani and its tributaries are situated at the peaks called “Aduppukkal Mottai”, “Agathimalai” and “Cherumunji Mottai”, at an altitude of about +2,000m from the mean sea level. The Tambarabarani basin is situated between latitudes 8.21′ N and 9.13′ N and between longitudes 77.10′ E. Vanatheertham waterfalls ( 40 m deep ) is located close to the origin of the main river. This river joins the Papanasam Reservoir at its 16th km. The river has 4 tributaries called Peyar, Ullar, Karaiar and Pambar upstream of Papanasam Reservoir. The River Servalar, a main tributary of Tambarabarani joins the main river at a running distance of 22 – km. Another tributary Manimuthar originates in the Agathimalai Ranges at an altitude of about +2,000 m above mean sea level. It joins the Tambarabarani at its 36th km near Ambasamudram. Gadana River joins at its 43rd km on the left.
The Gadana River has two tributaries namely Jambunadhi and Ramanadhi. There are six anicuts across Gadana and 7 across Ramanadhi. There is a reservoir across Gadana with a storage capacity of 352 m.cft. The Gadana River irrigates 3,887.09 hectares of wetlands. There is a reservoir of 152 m.cft. capacity across Ramanadhi. This river irrigates 2,023.47 hectares of wetlands. Pachaiyar, the next tributary joins Tambarabarani at its 61st km near Gopalasamudram. This tributary originates from the Kalakkadu reserve forests at an altitude of about 1,300 m above mean sea level. It has 12 anicuts across and irrigates 6,151.35 hectares of wet and dry lands. Chittar, a tributary of Tambarabarani joins it at its 73rd km, running almost parallel to Tambarabarani till its confluence. The river Tambarabarani, after the confluence of Chittar, travels another 23 – km where it has the Srivaikundam anicut. From thereon, it runs eastwards for 30-km and enters the Gulf of Mannar near Palayakayal.
The Chittar has 5 tributaries, 3 sub tributaries and numerous small streams contributing the flow. The Chittar and its tributaries have their origin in Courtallam hills in Tenkasi and Shencottah Taluks of Tirunelveli District. The Chittar runs for about 80 kms before it confluences with Tambaraparani. The Chittar’s first tributary is Ayindaruviar ( River of Five Falls ), which has an anicut and irrigates about 293.40 hectares of land. Hariharanadhi confluencing with Chittar has two sub tributaries called, the Gundar and Mottaiar. The Mottaiar has a reservoir and a pick up anicut feeding 141.64 hectares.The Gundar, which is also called “Karungalar” has 7 anicuts and a reservoir. They irrigate 465.39 hectares of land altogether. Mottaiar joins Gundar and Gundar joins Hariharanadhi. The Hariharanadhi itself has 7 anicuts and irrigates 445.10 hectares of land. Aludakanniar, another tributary to Chittar has 8 anicuts irrigating 827.47 hectares of land. Hanumanadhi is the next tributary to Chittar. It has a sub tributary called Karuppanadhi. There is a reservoir of 185 m.cft, capacity across Karuppanadhi besides 6 anicuts. These irrigate 3,844.59 hectares, the Hanumanadhi has 14 anicuts and irrigates 4,046.94 hectares and the last tributary to Chittar is Uppodai. Uppodai irrigates 445.16 hectares through two anicuts. The Chittar River itself has 17 anicuts irrigating 8,903.27 hectares of land.
The River Servalar, a main tributary of Tambarabarani joins the main river at a running distance of 22 – km. The diversion weir marks the confluence of Servalar and Tambaraparani. A diversion weir was constructed just below the confluence of Servalar. The weir has a storage capacity of 49 M.cft. The Powerhouse, just below functions with a gross head of 91 m and a capacity 4 x 7 MW. The Servalar Reservoir is across Servalar River. This is also a Masonry Gravity Dam of 450 m long and 53 m high. The reservoir has a storage capacity of 1,225 Mcft. The Power House at the reservoir will have an installed capacity of 20 MW. The Papanasam and Servalar reservoirs are interconnected by, a tunnel of 10,886 feet long. The tailrace water from Papanasam Power House joins the main river Tambarabarani and it serves the wetlands on both sides enroute before it confluences with Gulf of Mannar. Many tributaries join the river course in the plains both on the right and left flanks.
Ponnaiyar River :
Ponnaiyar River flows across the boundary between Cuddalore and Villupuram Taluks and joins with the Bay of Bengal about 3 miles north of Cuddalore. The Gadilam River, which starts in eastern part of Tirukkoyilur Taluk of Villupuram district flows through Cuddalore Taluk. In Cuddalore Taluk, Malattar joins it on the right and then it flows into the Bay of Bengal at a point, just north of Cuddalore. The Ponnaiyar and the Gadilam are connected by a river course called “the Malattar”, which serves to carry the surplus water from Ponnaiyar to Gadilam.
Rising in the Varushanad Hills of western Tamil Nadu, Vaigai River initially flows northeast through the Kambam and Varushanad valleys. In its central it flows eastward into the Vaigai reservoir at Narasingapuram. Near Sholavandan it bends to the southeast, passing Madurai town on its course to its mouth on Palk Strait, which separates the southeast coast of India from Sri Lanka. The Vaigai River rarely floods and its chief tributaries are the Siruliar, Theniar, Varaha Nadi, and Mangalar. It flows through a length of 150 miles ( 240 – km ), generally southeast. The Vaigai River basin ( indicating agricultural areas ) in Tamil Nadu has an area of 7,000 – sq – km where current ( and projected ) supplies of surface and groundwater are not deemed sufficient to meet current ( and projected ) needs. In 1985 a tunnel diverted waters from the Periyar River in Kerala under a contentious 999 – year agreement between Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The western and northwestern parts of the basin receive heavy rainfall during the monsoons, with an average rainfall of 850mm over the basin. The land use is predominantly agricultural ( consuming about 3,800 MCM of water annually ), with paddy as the primary crop. There are significant water – sharing conflicts within agriculture itself, with the various agricultural areas competing for scarce water supplies.
Rivers of India
The rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, as well as provide livelihoods for a large number of people all over the country. This easily explains why nearly all the major cities of India are located by the banks of river. The rivers also have an important role in Hindu mythology and are considered holy by all Hindus in the country.
Seven major rivers ( Indus, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapi, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi ) along with their numerous tributaries make up the river system of India. Most of the rivers pour their waters into the Bay of Bengal. Some of the rivers whose courses take them through the western part of the country and towards the east of the state of Himachal Pradesh empty into the Arabian Sea. Parts of Ladakh, northern parts of the Aravalli range and the arid parts of the Thar Desert have inland drainage. All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds.
- Vindhya and Satpura ranges
- Chotanagpur plateau in central India
- Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India
The rivers of India can be classified on the basis of origin and on the type of basin that they form.
The main Himalayan river systems are the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra river systems. The Himalayan rivers form large basins. Many rivers pass through the Himalayas. These deep valleys with steep rock sides were formed by the down – cutting of the river during the period of the Himalayan uplift. They perform intense erosional activity up the streams and carry huge load of sand and silt. In the plains, they form large meanders, and a variety of depositional features like flood plains, river cliffs and levees.
These rivers are perennial as they get water from the rainfall as well as the melting of ice. Nearly all of them create huge plains and are navigable over long distances of their course. These rivers are also harnessed in their upstream catchment area to generate hydroelectricity.
The main peninsular river systems include the Narmada, the Tapi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri and the Mahanadi river systems. The Peninsular rivers flow through shallow valleys. A large number of them are seasonal as their flow is dependent on rainfall. The intensity of erosional activities is also comparatively low because of the gentler slope. The hard rock bed and lack of silt and sand does not allow any significant meandering. Many rivers therefore have straight and linear courses. These rivers provide huge opportunities for hydro – electric power.
The Indus River System
The Indus originates in the northern slopes of the Kailash range in Tibet near Lake Manasarovar. It follows a north – westerly course through Tibet. It enters Indian territory in Jammu and Kashmir.
It forms a picturesque gorge in this part. Several tributaries – the Zaskar, the Shyok, the Nubra and the Hunza join it in the Kashmir region. It flows through the regions of Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit and runs between the Ladakh Range and the Zaskar Range. It crosses the Himalayas through a 5181 m deep gorge near Attock, lying north of the Nanga Parbat and later takes a bend to the south west direction before entering Pakistan. It has a large number of tributaries in both India and Pakistan and has a total length of about 2897 km from the source to the point near Karachi where it falls into the Arabian Sea. The main tributaries of the Indus in India are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.
The Jhelum originates in the south – eastern part of Kashmir, in a spring at Verinag. It flows into the Wular Lake, which lies to the north, and then into Baramula. Between Baramula and Muzaffarabad it enters a deep gorge cut by the river in the Pir Panjal range. It has a right bank tributary the Kishanganga which joins it at Muzaffarabad. It follows the Indo – Pakistan border flowing into the plains of Punjab, finally joining the Chenab at Trimmu.
The Chenab originates from the confluence of two rivers, the Chandra and the Bhaga, which themselves originate from either side of the Bara Lacha Pass in Lahul. It is also known as the Chandrabhaga in Himachal Pradesh. It runs parallel to the Pir Panjal Range in the north – westerly direction, and cuts through the range near Kishtwar. It enters the plains of Punjab near Akhnur and is later joined by the Jhelum. It is further joined by the Ravi and the Sutlej in Pakistan.
The Ravi originates near the Rotang pass in the Kangra Himalayas and follows a north – westerly course. It turns to the south – west, near Dalhousie, and then cuts a gorge in the Dhaola Dhar range entering the Punjab plain near Madhopur. It flows as a part of the Indo – Pakistan border for some distance before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab river. The total length of the river is about 720 km.
The Beas originates in Beas Kund, lying near the Rohtang pass. It runs past Manali and Kulu, where its beautiful valley is known as the Kulu valley. It first follows a north – west path from the town of Mandi and later a westerly path, before entering the Punjab plains near Mirthal. It joins the Sutlej river near Harika, after being joined by a few tributaries. The total length of the river is 615 km.
The Sutlej originates from the Rakas Lake, which is connected to the Manasarovar lake by a stream, in Tibet. Its flows in a north-westerly direction and enters Himachal Pradesh at the Shipki Pass, where it is joined by the Spiti river. It cuts deep gorges in the ranges of the Himalayas, and finally enters the Punjab plain after cutting a gorge in a hill range, the Naina Devi Dhar, where the Bhakra Dam having a large reservoir of water, called the Gobind Sagar, has been constructed. It turns west below Rupar and is later joined by the Beas. It enters Pakistan near Sulemanki, and is later joined by the Chenab. It has a total length of almost 1500 km.
The Brahmaputra River System
The Brahmaputra originates in the Mansarovar lake, also the source of the Indus and the Satluj. It is slightly longer than the Indus, but most of its course lies outside India. It flows eastward, parallel to the Himalayas. Reaching Namcha Barwa ( 7757 m ), it takes a U – turn around it and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and known as dihang. The undercutting done by this river is of the order of 5500 metres. In India, it flows through Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, and is joined by several tributaries.
In Tibet, the river is known as the Tsangpo. There, it receives less volume of water and has less silt. But in India, it passes through a region of heavy rainfall and as such, the river carries a large amount of rainfall and considerable amount of silt. The Brahmaputra has a braided channel throughout most of its length in Assam, with a few large islands within the channel.
The shifting of the channels of the river is also very common. The fury of the river during rains is very high. It is known for creating havoc in Assam and Bangladesh. At the same time, quite a few big pockets suffer from drought.
The Narmada River System
The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India, and is a total of 1,289 km ( 801 mi ) long. Of the major rivers of peninsular India, only the Narmada, the Tapti and the Mahi run from east to west. It rises on the summit of Amarkantak Hill in Madhya Pradesh state, and for the first 320 kilometres ( 200 miles ) of its course winds among the Mandla Hills, which form the head of the Satpura Range; then at Jabalpur, passing through the ‘Marble Rocks’, it enters the Narmada Valley between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges, and pursues a direct westerly course to the Gulf of Cambay. Its total length through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat amounts to 1312 kilometres ( 815 miles ), and it empties into the Arabian Sea in the Bharuch district of Gujarat.
The Tapi River System
The Tapi is a river of central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with the length of around 724 km, and only the Tapi River along with the Narmada river, and the Mahi River run from east to west. It rises in the eastern Satpura Range of southern Madhya Pradesh state, and flows westward, draining Madhya Pradesh’s historic Nimar region, Maharashtra’s historic Khandesh and east Vidarbha regions in the northwest corner of the Deccan Plateau and South Gujarat before emptying into the Gulf of Cambay of the Arabian Sea, in the State of Gujarat. The Western Ghats or Sahyadri range starts south of the Tapti River near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
The Tapi River Basin lies mostly in northern and eastern districts Maharashtra state viz, Amravati, Akola, Buldhana, Washim, Jalgaon, Dhule, Nandurbar, Malegaon, Nashik districts but also covers Betul, Burhanpur districts of Madhya Pradesh and Surat district in Gujarat as well.
The principal tributaries of Tapi River are Purna River, Girna River, Panzara River, Waghur River, Bori River and Aner River.
The Godavari River System
The river with second longest course within India, Godavari is often referred to as the Vriddh ( Old ) Ganga or the Dakshin ( South ) Ganga. The name may be apt in more ways than one, as the river follows the course of Ganga’s tragedy. The river is about 1,450 km ( 900 miles ) long. It rises at Trimbakeshwar, near Nasik and Mumbai ( formerly Bombay ) in Maharashtra around 380 km distance from the Arabian Sea, but flows southeast across south – central India through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, and empties into the Bay of Bengal. At Rajahmundry, 80 km from the coast, the river splits into two streams thus forming a very fertile delta. Like any other major rivers in India, the banks of this river also has many pilgrimage sites, Nasik, Triyambak and Bhadrachalam, being the major ones. It is a seasonal river, widened during the monsoons and dried during the summers. Godavari river water is brownish. Some of its tributaries include Indravati River, Pranahita ( Combination of Penuganga and Warda ), Manjira, Bindusara and Sabari. Some important urban centers on its banks include Nasik, Bhadrachalam, Rajahmundry and Narsapur. The Asia’s largest rail – cum – road bridge on the river Godavari linking Kovvur and Rajahmundry is considered to be an engineering feat.
The Krishna River System
The Krishna is one of the longest rivers of India ( about 1300 km in length ). It originates at Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra, passes through Sangli and meets the sea in the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi in Andhra Pradesh. The Krishna River flows through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
The traditional source of the river is a spout from the mouth of a statue of a cow in the ancient temple of Mahadev in Mahabaleshwar.
Its most important tributary is the Tungabhadra River, which itself is formed by the Tunga and Bhadra rivers that originate in the Western Ghats. Other tributaries include the Koyna, Bhima, Mallaprabha, Ghataprabha, Yerla, Warna, Dindi, Musi and Dudhganga rivers.
The Kaveri River System
The Kaveri ( also spelled Cauvery or Kavery ) is one of the great rivers of India and is considered sacred by the Hindus. This river is also called Dakshin Ganga. The headwaters are in the Western Ghats range of Karnataka state, and from Karnataka through Tamil Nadu. It empties into the Bay of Bengal. Its waters have supported irrigated agriculture for centuries, and the Kaveri has been the lifeblood of the ancient kingdoms and modern cities of South India.
The source of the river is Talakaveri located in the Western Ghats about 5,000 feet ( 1,500 m ) above sea level. Talakaveri is a famous pligrimage and tourist spot set amidst Bramahagiri Hills near Madikeri in Kodagu district of Karnataka. Thousands of piligrims flock to the temple at the source of the river especially on the specified day known as Tula sankramana when the river water has been witnessed to gush out like a fountain at a predetermined time. It flows generally south and east for around 765 km, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths. Its basin is estimated to be 27,700 square miles ( 71,700 km² ), and it has many tributaries including Shimsha, Hemavati, Arkavathy, Kapila, Honnuhole, Lakshmana Tirtha, Kabini, Lokapavani, Bhavani, Noyyal and Famous Amaravati.
The Mahanadi River System
The Mahanadi is a river of eastern India. The Mahanadi rises in the Satpura Range of central India, and flows east to the Bay of Bengal. The Mahanadi drains most of the state of Chhattisgarh and much of Orissa and also Jharkhand and Maharashtra. It has a length of about 860 km.
Near the city of Sambalpur, a large dam – the Hirakud Dam – is built on the river.
The Indian River Systems can be divided into four categories – the Himalayan, the rivers traversing the Deccan Plateau, the Coastal and those in the inland drainage basin. The Himalayan rivers are perennial as they are fed by melting glaciers every summer. During the monsoon, these rivers assume alarming proportions. Swollen with rainwater, they often inundate villages and towns in their path. The Gangetic basin is the largest river system in India, draining almost a quarter of the country.
Five Major Rivers In India
Ganga River :
One of India’s most sacred rivers, the Ganga ( or the Ganges ) originates in the Himalayas at Gaumukh ( 13,858 ft ). Legend has it that the Ganga originated from the mythical Mountain Meru believed to be located at the core of the universe, and also considered to be the abode of gods.
From here the Ganga drops into Shiva’s matted locks ( Shiva is the Destroyer of the Universe in the Hindu Holy Trinity of Creator – Preserver – Destroyer ), that seem to cushion its fall before it finally lands on earth.
That the river is of such spiritual significance for the Hindus is borne out by the fact that a dip in the Ganga is believed to absolve one of all sins. A few drops of Ganga jal ( water ) on a dying Hindu’s lips are said to earn the latter a permanent abode in heaven. Furthermore, Hindus believe that if the ashes of the dead are immersed in the Ganga, their souls break free from the cycle of birth and rebirth and attain nirvana. The three most revered towns situated on the banks of the Ganga are Haridwar, Allahabad and the eternal Varanasi.
Saraswati is celeberated both as river diety and as the Goddess of speech and learning. The meaning of the word Saraswati is ‘ full of waters’ or ‘ full of lakes’. The source of the river is considered to be in Plakasha Prasravana in the Himalayan mountains and the place where the river disappears is called Vinasana. The water of the river Saraswati are inspiring. As a river Goddess, she connected with fertality and procreation and particularly with purification.
Sindhu in Rig Veda is reffered as one one of the rivers of Sapta Sindhus. The river gots its name of Sindhu or Sindh through which it flows. It is the great river of the world.It originated from the Kailasa mountain near the Mansarovar in Tibet.
Godavari, the largest and the longest river of South India. It is popularly reffered as to as the Dakshina Ganga. The Godavari means the best of givers of water, or the best of the rivers giving cows. According to traditions, Godavari is divided itsef into seven branches before it meets the sea and they are named after the seven rishis.
Narmada is the largest of the major west flowinf rivers born in the central highlands. It is described as the best among the rivers. It is said that the river was issued by the body of Rudra. Narmada originated from the Amarkantak hill and flows at a distance of 1300 km and ultimately meets the Bay of Cambay near Bharuch. Narmada is capable of purifying all creatures and even immovabbles.
The Yamuna, a tributary of the Ganga, is another important river. Rising from Yamunotri in the Himalayas, it merges with the Ganga in Allahabad. The Saraswati, a mythical river known to have existed a few thousand years ago, is believed to follow its invisible underground course to unite with the Ganga and the Yamuna at Sangam ( meeting point ), or Prayag in Allahabad.
Rivers like the Chambal, Betwa and Sone flow northwards from the Vindhya Mountain Range and drain into the Ganga and the Yamuna. The basins of the Brahmaputra and the Indus cover about one – tenth of India’s land area. Smaller rivers like the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej are tributaries of the Indus, a river that flows from Pakistan into North India.
Rivers Are Mainly Fed By Rain
The rivers of the Indian peninsular plateau are mainly fed by rain. During summer, their flow is greatly reduced, and some of the tributaries even dry up, only to be revived in the monsoon. The Godavari basin in the peninsula is the largest in the country, spanning an area of almost one-tenth of the country.
The rivers Narmada ( India’s holiest river ) and Tapti flow almost parallel to each other but empty themselves in opposite directions. The two rivers make the valley rich in alluvial soil and teak forests cover much of the land.
While coastal rivers gush down the peaks of the Western Ghats into the Arabian Sea in torrents during the rains, they cease to flow after the monsoon. Streams like the Sambhar in western Rajasthan are mainly seasonal in character, draining into the inland basins and salt lakes. In the Rann of Kutch, the only river that flows through the salt desert is the Luni.
Owing to the harsh Indian summer, it is not possible to navigate by barges and small ships throughout the year even on massive rivers like the Ganga and the Yamuna. In Calcutta where the Ganga is deep and the water doesn’t dry up, Kidderpore functions as a dock for ferries and small ships coming in from the Bay of Bengal.
Rivers of World
Here’s the list of longest river in the world. As we know river is one of the important part of human civilizations. Without any river there’s no farming that can give all the people food. River also become one of the most important transportation mean by using boat or ship that can be used on the river and go to other area. So here’s the longest river in the world
1. Nile River : Africa : 6650 Km
Nile River in Africa, is one of the two longest rivers on Earth. Nile River flows along the 6650 km or 4132 miles and flow through nine countries: Ethiopia, Zaire, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan and of course Egypt. Because the Nile has the important meaning in Egyptian history ( especially ancient Egypt ). The Nile has a very important role in the civilization, life and history of the Egyptians since thousands of years ago. One important role from the Nile is the ability to produce fertile soil as a result of sedimentation along the river basin. By the existence of this fertile soil make the inhabitants of Egypt can develop the farm and the Egyptian civilization developed since thousands of years ago.
2. Amazon River : South America : 6400 km
The Amazon River ( Portuguese : Rio Amazonas; Spanish: Río Amazonas ) of South America is the largest river in the world with a total river flow greater than the next ten largest rivers combined. The Amazon, which has the largest drainage basin in the world, accounts for approximately one – fifth of the world’s total river flow. In its upper stretches the Amazon river is called Apurímac ( in Peru ) and Solimões ( in Brazil ).
During the wet season, parts of the Amazon exceed 190 kilometres ( 120 mi ) in width. Because of its vast dimensions, it is sometimes called The River Sea. At no point is the Amazon crossed by bridges. This is not because of its huge dimensions; in fact, for most of its length, the Amazon’s width is well within the capability of modern engineers to bridge. However, the bulk of the river flows through tropical rainforest, where there are few roads and even fewer cities, so there is no need for crossings.
While the Amazon is the largest river in the world by most measures, the current consensus within the geographic community holds that the Amazon is the second longest river, just slightly shorter than the Nile.
3. Yangtze River / Chang Jiang : China : 6300 Km
Yangtze River ( pinyin : Changjiang, English : Long River or the Yangtze River ) is the longest river in China and Asia. Long River is the third – longest river in the world. This river become the southern boundary of the ancient culture of China which is located between the Yellow River in the north and Long River in the south.
This river is known as the Yangtze River (pinyin : Yangzi ) because of the misunderstanding of the missionaries at first. Yangtze River only refers to the length of the river downstream, but because this is the first heard by the Western, Yangtze is used to represent the entire Long River.
4. Mississippi – Missouri River : United States: 6275 Km
Mississippi River is a river in the U.S.. It is one of the longest river in the world and is the second longest river in America. Has a length of 3.734 km for its main river but will be 6275 Km if It’s measured in long range from tributary river of Missouri. It’s originated in Lake Itasca in Minnesota and culminate in the Gulf of Mexico. The name “Mississippi” comes from a Native American language meaning “father of waters.”
Mississippi’s spring is in the state of Minnesota, near the border with Canada. Mississippi flowing to the south across the central U.S.. Flowing through the state of Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Mississippi.
5. Yenisei – Angara – Selenga – Ider : Russia and Mongolia : 5539 Km
Yenisei also written as Yenisey, is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean. Rising in Mongolia, it follows a northerly course to the Yenisei Gulf in the Kara Sea, draining a large part of central Siberia, the longest stream following the Yenisei – Angara – Selenga – Ider.
6. Yellow River / Hwang Ho : China : 5464 Km
Yellow River ( Huanghe or Hwangho ) is an important river in North China which became the center of Chinese culture together with the Long River ( Yangtze ) in the south. With a length of 5464 kilometers, the river is the second longest river in China after the Long River ( Yangtze ).
7. Ob – Irtysh River : Russia, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia : 5,410 Km
This long river can be divided into Ob River and The Irtysh is the major tributary of the Ob. There’re several other tributaries for Ob. The water in the Ob was polluted because of the poison from the Russian weapon research and production.
8. Congo River :
Congo River ( also known as Zaire River ) is the largest river in the western part of Central Africa. This river has a length of about 4700 km, making it the second largest river in Africa ( after the Nile ). It flows through the world’s largest rain forest after Amazon. The name comes from the Kingdom of the Congo. From 1971 until 1997, the government called it Zaire River.
9. Amur River : Russia and China : 4444 Km
Amur River or Heilong Jiang ( Tionghoa language ), or sahaliyan Ula ( Manchu ) is the 9th longest river in the world, forms the border between the Far East Russia with the North East part of China. Amur River is the symbol and important geopolitical factor in the Chinese – Russian relations. Amur is very important in the period of the Sino – Soviet split in the 1960s.
The 25 Longest Rivers in the World
|S.No.||Name of the Programs||Eligibility Criteria|
MBA Capital Market
|2.||MBA HR – Selection process|
Management – Selection
process is separate
|4.||PGDM – Bangalore campus|
PGDM – Hyderabad campus