Blood in Human Body

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Blood in Human Body.

Blood is a fluid connective tissue. It is 6.8 litres in man and 500 ml less in woman. 6 – 8% of body weight ( pH 7.4 ).

Constituents :

Solid or cellular part called Blood Cells and fluid part called the Blood Plasma.

Blood Cells :

1. Red Blood Corpuscles ( RBC )

Also called Erythrocytes, disc – shaped ( for increased Surface Area ), no nucleus contains a pigment called Haemoglobin, which gives blood its Red Color.

Average Man : Amount of Haemoglobin is 14 – 15.6 gm / 100 cc of blood ( 11 – 14 in woman ).

RBCs are produced in spleen and liver in foetus and in bone marrow after birth @ 1.2 million / sec.

Life of RBC is 120 days after which they are broken down in spleen or liver.

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Product of breakdown of haemoglobin is a pigment ( yellow colour ), called bilirubin which is normally disposed off through bile whereas haem transferred to red bone marrow. Retention of bilirubin leads to jaundice.

No. of RBCs is 4.5 – 5 million / cubic mm of blood. At high altitude, RBCs increase in number.

More : Polycythemia. Less: Anaemia

2. White Blood Corpuscles (WBC)

Also called Leucocytes, rounded, with a nucleus, far less numerous than RBCs ( 1 : 400 – 500 ) ( 5,000 – 10,000 / cu mm ), life 3 – 4 days, soldiers of body’s defence system.

Are of 2 Types : Granulocytes (Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils) and Agranulocytes (Monocytes, Lymphocytes)

Basophils : Take up basic stains. Have an S-shaped nucleus. Secrete an anti – coagulant Heparin, which prevents clots within the blood vessels.

Eosinophils or Acidophils : Take up acidic stains. Assists in defence mechanism.

Neutrophils : Stain equally well with both acidic and basic dyes. Most numerous of the WBCs ( 65 – 70% ). Defence.

Monocytes : Largest of all. Very motile. Defence.

Lymphocytes : 25% of the WBC. Takes part in antigen and antibody formation.

3. Platelets

Also called Thrombocytes, formed in bone marrow, about 250,000 / cu mm of blood, life 3 – 7 days, sets off blood clotting.

Plasma (65%)

Watery part of blood, clear, yellow fluid. Contains about 90% water, proteins and organic salts.

Plasma contains 7% proteins which include Albumin, Globulin and Fibrinogen.

Plasma transports nutrients from the small intestine to the body tissues, and return the waste material to the kidneys, where it is filtered out.

The protein in plasma includes antibodies also, to assist in defence mechanism.

Regulates pH of blood.

Approx. 60% blood is water only.

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Lymph

Lymph = Blood – RBC, i.e., Plasma + WBC.
Lymph forms second circulatory system. It acts as middle man between blood and tissue.

All interchanges of nutrients and waste products between blood and tissue takes place through lymph only.

It has more of lymphocytes as compared to that of blood ( Blood has more of neutrophils ).

Spleen produces lymph. At the same time it also acts as the graveyard of lymph.

Spleen is also known by the name of ‘Blood Bank’ because RBCs, WBCs and Lymph are produced in spleen.

It is situated above left kidney behind the stomach.

Comparison Between Blood and Lymph

S. No.NameYear
13Tulsi Mehrji Shrestha1977
14Nichidatsu Fuji1978
15Nelson R. Mandela1979
16Mrs. Barbara Ward1980
17Gunnar Myrdal and Alva Myrdal1981
18Dr. Leopold Sedar Senghor1982
19Dr. Bruno Kreisky1983
20Mrs. Indira Gandhi (Posthumous)1985
21Olaf Palme (Ex. Prime Minister of Sweden)1986
22Perez de Cuellar (former Secretary General of the UNO)1987
23Yasser Arafat (PLO Leader)1988
24Robert Mugabe (President of Zimbabwe)1989
25Helmut Kohi (Chancellor of Germany)1990
26Aruna Asaf All (Social Worker, India)1991
27Maurice F. Strong (Canada)1992
28Ms. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (Myanmar)1993
29Dr. Mahathir - bin - Mohammed (P.M., Malaysia)1994
30Mr. Md. Hosini Mubarak (Egypt)1995
31Gok Chong Tong (P.M., Singapore)2001

Comparison Between Plasma and Lymph
S. No.State / UTsLok SabhaRajya Sabha
13Madhya Pradesh2911
14Chattisgarh115
15Maharashtra4819
16Manipur21
17Meghalaya21
18Mizoram11
19Nagaland11
20Orissa2110
21Punjab137
22Rajasthan2510
23Sikkim11
24Tamil Nadu3918
25Tripura21
26Uttar Pradesh8031
27Uttaranchal53
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28West Bengal4216
29Andaman & Nicobar1-
30Chandigarh1-
31Dadra & Nagar Haveli1-
32Daman & Diu1-
33Delhi73
34Lakshadweep1-
35Pondicherry11

Blood Groupings

Father of Blood Grouping: Karl Landsteiner ( Australian pathologist ). He discovered A, B and O blood groups in 1900.

  • Decastello and Sturle in 1902 discovered AB blood group.
  • ABO system of blood groups is based on antigens and antibodies.
  • Antigens: They are proteins and are found on the surface of RBCs. Antigens are A and B.
  • Antibodies: They are produced in lymph glands and are present in blood plasma. Antibodies are a and b.

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( Percentage in brackets imply the percentage of the World population of that particular blood group )

  • AB: Universal recipient
  • O: Universal donor

RH Factor: It is based on Rh antigen. Discovered in 1940 by Landsteiner and A.S. Veiner.

It discovered in Rhesus monkey. A person can be Rh+ or Rh-.

In world population Rh+ are 85% and Rh- are 15% only. Rh+ can receive blood from Rh- but no vice – versa.

Blood transfusion technique was first developed by James Blundell in 1825.

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