Blood in Human Body.
Blood is a fluid connective tissue. It is 6.8 litres in man and 500 ml less in woman. 6 – 8% of body weight ( pH 7.4 ).
Solid or cellular part called Blood Cells and fluid part called the Blood Plasma.
Blood Cells :
1. Red Blood Corpuscles ( RBC )
Also called Erythrocytes, disc – shaped ( for increased Surface Area ), no nucleus contains a pigment called Haemoglobin, which gives blood its Red Color.
Average Man : Amount of Haemoglobin is 14 – 15.6 gm / 100 cc of blood ( 11 – 14 in woman ).
RBCs are produced in spleen and liver in foetus and in bone marrow after birth @ 1.2 million / sec.
Life of RBC is 120 days after which they are broken down in spleen or liver.
Product of breakdown of haemoglobin is a pigment ( yellow colour ), called bilirubin which is normally disposed off through bile whereas haem transferred to red bone marrow. Retention of bilirubin leads to jaundice.
No. of RBCs is 4.5 – 5 million / cubic mm of blood. At high altitude, RBCs increase in number.
More : Polycythemia. Less: Anaemia
2. White Blood Corpuscles (WBC)
Also called Leucocytes, rounded, with a nucleus, far less numerous than RBCs ( 1 : 400 – 500 ) ( 5,000 – 10,000 / cu mm ), life 3 – 4 days, soldiers of body’s defence system.
Are of 2 Types : Granulocytes (Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils) and Agranulocytes (Monocytes, Lymphocytes)
Basophils : Take up basic stains. Have an S-shaped nucleus. Secrete an anti – coagulant Heparin, which prevents clots within the blood vessels.
Eosinophils or Acidophils : Take up acidic stains. Assists in defence mechanism.
Neutrophils : Stain equally well with both acidic and basic dyes. Most numerous of the WBCs ( 65 – 70% ). Defence.
Monocytes : Largest of all. Very motile. Defence.
Lymphocytes : 25% of the WBC. Takes part in antigen and antibody formation.
Also called Thrombocytes, formed in bone marrow, about 250,000 / cu mm of blood, life 3 – 7 days, sets off blood clotting.
Watery part of blood, clear, yellow fluid. Contains about 90% water, proteins and organic salts.
Plasma contains 7% proteins which include Albumin, Globulin and Fibrinogen.
Plasma transports nutrients from the small intestine to the body tissues, and return the waste material to the kidneys, where it is filtered out.
The protein in plasma includes antibodies also, to assist in defence mechanism.
Regulates pH of blood.
Approx. 60% blood is water only.
Lymph = Blood – RBC, i.e., Plasma + WBC.
Lymph forms second circulatory system. It acts as middle man between blood and tissue.
All interchanges of nutrients and waste products between blood and tissue takes place through lymph only.
It has more of lymphocytes as compared to that of blood ( Blood has more of neutrophils ).
Spleen produces lymph. At the same time it also acts as the graveyard of lymph.
Spleen is also known by the name of ‘Blood Bank’ because RBCs, WBCs and Lymph are produced in spleen.
It is situated above left kidney behind the stomach.
Comparison Between Blood and Lymph
|13||Tulsi Mehrji Shrestha||1977|
|15||Nelson R. Mandela||1979|
|16||Mrs. Barbara Ward||1980|
|17||Gunnar Myrdal and Alva Myrdal||1981|
|18||Dr. Leopold Sedar Senghor||1982|
|19||Dr. Bruno Kreisky||1983|
|20||Mrs. Indira Gandhi (Posthumous)||1985|
|21||Olaf Palme (Ex. Prime Minister of Sweden)||1986|
|22||Perez de Cuellar (former Secretary General of the UNO)||1987|
|23||Yasser Arafat (PLO Leader)||1988|
|24||Robert Mugabe (President of Zimbabwe)||1989|
|25||Helmut Kohi (Chancellor of Germany)||1990|
|26||Aruna Asaf All (Social Worker, India)||1991|
|27||Maurice F. Strong (Canada)||1992|
|28||Ms. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (Myanmar)||1993|
|29||Dr. Mahathir - bin - Mohammed (P.M., Malaysia)||1994|
|30||Mr. Md. Hosini Mubarak (Egypt)||1995|
|31||Gok Chong Tong (P.M., Singapore)||2001|
Comparison Between Plasma and Lymph
|S. No.||State / UTs||Lok Sabha||Rajya Sabha|
|29||Andaman & Nicobar||1||-|
|31||Dadra & Nagar Haveli||1||-|
|32||Daman & Diu||1||-|
Father of Blood Grouping: Karl Landsteiner ( Australian pathologist ). He discovered A, B and O blood groups in 1900.
- Decastello and Sturle in 1902 discovered AB blood group.
- ABO system of blood groups is based on antigens and antibodies.
- Antigens: They are proteins and are found on the surface of RBCs. Antigens are A and B.
- Antibodies: They are produced in lymph glands and are present in blood plasma. Antibodies are a and b.
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( Percentage in brackets imply the percentage of the World population of that particular blood group )
- AB: Universal recipient
- O: Universal donor
RH Factor: It is based on Rh antigen. Discovered in 1940 by Landsteiner and A.S. Veiner.
It discovered in Rhesus monkey. A person can be Rh+ or Rh-.
In world population Rh+ are 85% and Rh- are 15% only. Rh+ can receive blood from Rh- but no vice – versa.
Blood transfusion technique was first developed by James Blundell in 1825.
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