Common Diseases in Human Body
1. Malaria An insect – borne tropical disease. Cause Malaria parasite ( Plasmodium ) which enters the blood through a mosquito bite ( female anopheles ).
Symptoms Shivering, fever, repeated attacks lead to enlargement of spleen. Also leads to anaemia, pigmentation of the face, and general weakness.
Cure / Prevention Administration of quinine or plaudrine. Prevented by keeping the surroundings free of mosquitoes.
2. Tuberculosis An infectious and endemic disease, both air – borne and caused by food, unhealthy living and working conditions. Cause Mycobacterium tuberculosis
( detected by Robert Koch in the mid 19th century ), a type of bacteria. It attacks a person suffering from malnutrition, weak chest, unhealthy living and working conditions. Symptoms General weakness, regular fever ( generally in the evening and not very high ), coughing, bloodstained sputum.
Cure / Prevention Streptomycin and surgery. Prevented by BCG inoculation and healthy living and working atmosphere. BCG The vaccine was developed in 1922 by Leon Calmette and Camille Guerrin in Paris and called BCG after them. ( Bacillus Calmette – Guerin ).
3. Cholera An acute epidemic, water and food – borne disease. Cause Cholera vibrio or Vibriocholerae which attacks during exposure to chill, when stomach is empty for a long duration, eating of unripe or overripe fruits, and stale food.
Symptoms Vomiting, stomach ache, frequent loose stools followed by fever and unconsciousness.
Cure / Prevention Avoiding consumption of cut fruits exposed to flies, and contaminated water. Anticholera drugs are administered.
4. Tetanus Cause Bacillus tetanus and Clostridium tetani which live in soil, dust, cow and horse dung. It attacks an open wound exposed to dust and soil.
Symptoms Painful contraction of muscles, usually of neck and jaws, followed by paralysis of thoracic muscles.
Cure / Prevention Preventing exposure of wounds to dust and administering of Anti – Tetanus ( ATS ) injection.
5. Diphtheria An acute infectious disease of the throat. Cause Acute infection by diphtheria bacillus / corynebacterium diphtheria causing infection of throat.
Symptoms Inflammation of throat where a grey membrane ( a false membrane on mucous surface ) is formed. Pain and swelling of throat, with fever.
Cure / Prevention Immunisation vaccine of diphtheria antitoxin within 12-24 hours of appearance of symptoms.
6. Typhoid A food – and water – borne infectious disease.Cause Salmonella typhi bacillus transmitted through contaminated food and water, either directly by sewage or indirectly by hands and faulty hygiene.
Symptoms Temperature, slow pulse, abdominal tenderness, rosecoloured rash.
Cure / Prevention Rest and administration of chloromycetin, proper sanitation, protection of eatables.
7. Plague A contagious disease which takes the form of an epidemic.Cause Pasteurella pestis, spread by infected rats. Transfer of infection from rat to man through flea bite or accidental contact with infected rats.
Symptoms Acute body ache, reddish eyes, sudden rise in temperatue, inflammation of neck glands and glands in armpits, and
Cure / Prevention Antiplague inoculation, isolation of patient, disinfection of patient’s clothes and utensils, burning of killed rats. Sulpha drugs and streptomycin administration.
8. Typhus A viral infection Cause Rickettsia prowazekii, usually caused by poor hygiene and malnutrition.
Symptoms High fever, skin eruptions, and severe headache.
Cure / prevention Sulphonamides and antibiotics.
9. Pneumonia Cause Diplococus pneumonia.
Symptoms Chills, pain in chest, rusty sputum, rapid breathing, abdominal pain.
Cure / Prevention Antibiotics.
10. Gonorrhoea A venereal disease Cause Neisseria gonorrhea, through sexual intercourse with infected person.
Symptoms Redness, swelling, pus discharge through urethra, painful urination.
Cure Penicillin G, tetracycline.
11. Syphilis Cause Treponema pallidum transmitted through sexual contact.
Symptoms A hard painless sore on the genitalia, skin eruption.
Cure / Prevention Penicillin, protected sexual intercourse.
12. Whooping Chiefly occurs among infants Cough and children. Cause Nemophilus pertusis transmitted through air.
Symptoms Severe cough, usually at night.
Cure / Prevention Immunisation of infants with immunity serum.
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