DNA and RNA.
DNA stands for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid while RNA stands for Ribose Nucleic Acid.
Compounds of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorus.
Made up of Nucleotide Monomers (Polynucleotides)
A nucleotide consists of a Nitrogenous base, a Pentose Sugar & Phosphate Group.
Nucleoside : Nitrogeous Base + Sugar.
5 Nitrogenous Bases are there :
Cytosine, Uracil and Thymine are the Pyrimidine Derivatives with a single ring structure.
Adenine and Guanine are the Purine Derivatives with a double ring structure.
The pentose sugars are of 2 types:
Thus, the Nitrogenous bases, combining with Pentose Sugars and a Phosphate Group, form 8 type of Nucleotide Molecules :
- Cytosine + Ribose Sugar + Phosphate
- Cytosine + Deoxyribose Sugar + Phosphate
- Uracil + Ribose Sugar + Phosphate
- Thymine + Deoxyribose Sugar + Phosphate
- Adenine + Ribose Sugar + Phosphate
- Adenine + Deoxyribose Sugar + Phosphate
- Guanine + Ribose Sugar + Phosphate
- Guanine + Deoxyribose Sugar + Phosphate
Long and highly complex, spirally twisted, right-handed double helix, Ladder like structure formed by 2 polynucleotides strands.
Base thymine is present, but never uracil.
Wilkins, Watson and Crick (1953) – Noble Prize for DNA Structure.
Adenine links with Thymine by two hydrogen bonds.
Guanine with cytosine by three hydrogen bonds.
A single DNA molecule has millions of pairs of nucleotide monomers.
DNA contains “Blue Print” of life.
With RNA’s help, it directs the synthesis of all structural and functional proteins of Protoplasm.
Difference Table of DNA and RNA
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