Pulmonary Volumes and CapacitiesGeneral Knowledge » Science »
Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities
I. Pulmonary Volume
- Volume of air in the lungs.
- It is divided into four different types, according to the completely or incompletely filled lungs during breathing.
1. Tidal Volume (TV) : The volume of air inspired or expired involuntarily in each normal breath. It is about 500 ml of air in average young adult man.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) : The maximum volume of air which a person can inhale over and above tidal volume by deepest possible voluntary inspiration. It is about 3000 ml.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) : The volume of air which can be expired over] and above the tidal volume with maximum effort. It is about 1100 ml.
4. Residual Volume (RV) : The volume of air left in the lungs even after maximum forceful expiration. It is about 1200 ml.
II. Pulmonary Capacities : Combination of two or more pulmonary volumes.
- Inspiratory Capacity (IC) : TV + IRV. It is about 3500 ml.
- Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) : ERV + RV. It is about 2300 ml.
- Vital Capacity (VC) : IRV + TV + ERV. It is the maximum amount of air a person can expel forcefully from his lungs after first filling these with a maximum deep inspiration. It is about 4600 ml.
- Total Lung Capacity (TLC) : TV + IRV + RV + ERV. It is about 5800 ml.
|New Directions : |
Suite 403, 4th Floor, Meridian Plaza,
Green Lands, Ameerpet,
Hyderabad - 500 016,
Phone No. : +91 (0) 40 - 66822555, 332, 333,
Mobile No. : 9393959587,
Email : email@example.com.
|AEC - Abroad Education Consultants
204 / 2, 2nd Floor,
White House - 1 Metropolitan, Near Lifestyle,
Phone No. : +91 40 - 42000900,
Mobile No. : 9246818083 - 84,
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org.
Respiratory Disorders in Human Body
Asphyxia : It is a condition caused by increase in CO2 concentration in tissue.
Hypoxia : Shortage of oxygen supply to body.
Hypopnoea : Slow breathing.
Hyperpnoea : Rapid breathing.
Apnoea : No breathing.
Dyspnoea : Painful breathing except in upright position.
Orthopnoea : Difficult breathing.
Tachypnoea : Rapid shallow breathing.
COPD : Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease which includes Emphysema, Chronic bronchitis and Asthma.
Emphysema : A situation of ‘short breath’ due to die break down of alveolar walls and reduction of respiratory area as it happens due to smoking.
Tuberculosis : A bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Pneumonia : Infection of lungs by Diplococcus pneumonia and leads to accumulation of mucous and lymph in alveoli, impairing gaseous exchange.
Whooping cough or Pertussis : An infectious disease caused by bacterium Bordetella pertussis.
Asthma : Difficult breathing due to spasm in bronchial muscles and narrowing of bronchi.
Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (SAS) : Persons with snoring habit suffer with sleep apnoea syndrome because their upper respiratory tract closes on inhalation leading to apnoea and sleep breaks.
Cough : A reflex in lower respiratory passages followed by forceful expulsion of air to remove any irritant.
Sneeze : A reflex similar to cough but applies to nasal passageways instead of lower respiratory passages.
Hypercapnia : Excess of CO2 in the body.
Cyanosis : Means blueness of skin because of excessive amount of deoxygenated haemoglobin.
Atelectasis : Means collapse of alveoli. Lack of surfactant also leads to atelectasis.
Hiccups : Exact reason unknown; due to spasmodic contraction of diaphragm (possibly due to irritation of phrenic nerve which supplies the diaphragm).
Pleurisy : Inflammation of pleural membrane causing severe chest pain.
|1.||Indian Botanic Garden||Howrah||212 ha|
|2.||Botanic Garden of India||Noida||80 ha|
|3.||Experimental Botanic Garden Andaman & Nicobar Circle||Dhanikheri||30 ha|
|4.||Experimental Botanic Garden Arunachal Field Station||Sankie View||48 ha|
|5.||Experimental Botanic Garden Arid Zone Circle||Jodhpur||4 ha|
|6.||Experimental Botanic Garden Central Circle||Allahabad||3 ha|
|7.||Experimental Botanic Garden Eastern Circle (Shillong)||Barapani||10.4 ha|
|8.||Experimental Botanic Garden Northern Circle||Pauri||14 ha|
|9.||Experimental Botanic Garden Northern Circle||Khirsu||8 ha|
|10.||Experimental Botanic Garden Northern Circle||Dehradun||2 ha|
|11.||Experimental Botanic Garden Sikkim Himalayan Circle||Gangtok||1.5 ha|
|12.||Experimental Botanic Garden Southern Circle||Yercaud||18.6 ha|
|13.||Experimental Botanic Garden Western Circle||Mundhwa (Pune)||17.8 ha|