I. Ovary – Primary Sex Organ
The two ovaries are small bodies which remain attached to the abdominal wall.
Produce ova or egg. Normally, only one egg matures in each ovary every alternate month.
II. Secondary Sex Organs
1. Fallopian Tubes (or Oviducts) :
Extend from Ovary to the Uterus. Their muscular contractions push the egg down into the uterus.
Oviducts also Transport Spermatozoa from the Uterus towards the ovary and produce trophic substances that ensure the Development of Fertilized Conceptus.
2. Uterus : It is situated in the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder and the rectum. Its walls are composed of smooth muscle fibres called myometrium.
The uterus is the site for implementation of the pre – embryo and for the subsequent embryonic and foetal development.
The vagina receives the male penis during copulation.
The great elasticity of its wall also allows the passage of the baby during childbirth.
The opening of the vagina in young females is partially closed by a thin membrane called hymen.
The hymen is frequently ruptured in childhood due to exercise or disease.
4. Vulva : The external female genitalia is called the vulva.
In the upper – most angle of the vulva, in front of the urethral opening is located a small erectile clitoris which is highly sensitive as it contains numerous sensory nerve endings for touch and pressure.
5. Bartholin’s Glands : A pair of small glands which occur one on each side of the vaginal opening.
These glands correspond to Cowper’s gland of male.
The secretion of this gland is thick, viscous and alkaline for lubrication during copulation.
6. Mammary Glands : They are modified sweat glands that lie over the pectoral muscles.
They are also present in males but in a rudimentary form. Internally each gland has 15 – 20 lobulated milk glands each having a number of lobules containing number of alveoli.
Its secretion is under the control of prolactin hormone (of pituitary) while milk ejection is under the control of oxytocin hormone.
Path of Sperms in Mammals :
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