I. Testes – Primary Sex Organs
Testes are paired structures which lie outside the abdominal cavity in a thin pouch skin called scrotum.
Temperature of scrotum is 2°C below the body temperature.
Testis contains 1 to 3 seminiferous tubules which are embedded in loose interstitial connective tissue containing blood capillaries, nerve fibres and numerous small groups of large glandular cells called interstitial cells or cells of Leydig which secrete male hormone, testosterone.
Testosterone shows the onset of puberty and also maintains spermatogenesis and libido (sexual urge).
II. Secondary Sex Organs
1. Epididymis :
It stores sperms prior to ejaculation and contributes to seminal fluid, for nourishing sperms and providing them motility.
3. Ejaculatory Duct :
Aids in the emission of the seminal fluid.
4. Urethra :
It leads from urinary bladder through the prostate gland and into the penis.
It forms the outflow pathway for the urine and for the seminal fluid.
However, it is physically impossible for a man to urinate and ejaculate at the same time because just prior to ejaculation, the internal sphincter closes off the opening of urinary bladder.
The sphincter does not relax until the ejaculation is completed.
5. Seminal Vesicles :
They secrete viscous fluid which constitute the main part of the ejaculate.
Seminal fluid contains fructose (as a source of energy which provide nourishment for the activity of sperm), citric acid and prostaglandins (these two stimulate the movement of sperms in female tract).
6. Prostate Gland :
It contributes an alkaline component to the seminal fluid for sperm motility.
It helps the sperms to become active and counteracts any adverse effect urine may have on the sperms.
It also provides a characteristic odour to the seminal fluid.
7. Cowper’s Gland :
It secretes a clear, viscous mucous which is lubricating in function.
8. Penis :
It is a cylindrical and highly vascularised copulatory organ.
The tip of the penis is called glans penis.
The penis contains three cylindrical strands of erectile tissue: two corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum which contains the urethra.
During sexual excitement, the elastic covernosa spaces become filled with blood which then compresses the penile vein through the centre of the body of the penis.
Since no blood flows out of the penis, it becomes enlarged and erect.
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