Space Research in India

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{tab=Indian Space Research Program}

Space Research in India

Indian Space Research Program

1962 : Indian National Committee for Space Research ( 1NCOSPAR ) formed by th6 Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India to aid and advise in starting the space program.

1963 : Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station ( TERLS ) established in response to the long felt need of scientists to make in situ measurements of upper atmospheric parameters, particularly of equatorial trajectory.

1965 : The Space Science and Technology Centre ( SSTC ) established “in Thumba as a research and development laboratory in space technology for achieving self – reliance in this field.

1967 : An earth station for satellite telecommunication was set up at Ahmkdabad to provide facilities for training and research in this technology. Engineers trained here helped to set up India’s first commercial satellite telecommunication earth station at Arvi, near Poona.

1968 : TERLS dedicated to the United Nations.

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1969 : ISRO formed under Department of Atomic Energy.

1972 : Space Commission and Department of Space set up.

1972 – 74 : A number of air – borne remote sensing experiments conducted for surveying earth’s resources.

1975 : The first Indian Satellite, Aryabhatta launched ( April 19 ) from the Soviet Union.

1975 – 76 : The first major space application program. Satellite Instructional Television Experiments ( SITE ) conducted during August 1975 – July 1976 using the American Satellite, ATS – 6.

1977 : Satellite Telecommunication Experiments Project ( STEP ) carried out from the middle of 1977 to 1979 using the Franco – German Satellite, Symphonie.

1979 : The second Indian Satellite, a Satellite for Earth observations, Bhaskara – 1, launched ( 7June ) from the Soviet Union.

1980 : SLV – 3, India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle, puts Rohini Satellite, into a near – earth elliptical orbit from Sriharikota ( 18 July ).

1981 : India’s first experimental geostationary communication satellite, APPLE, successfully launched by ESA’s Ariane Launch Vehicle from Kourou, French Guyana, ( 19 June ). India’s second satellite for Earth observation, Bhaskara – II, launched from the Soviet Union ( 20 November ).

1983 : Second developmental launch of SLV – 3 successfully conducted from Sriharikota ( 17 April ) and RS – D2 satellite orbited INSAT – IB India’s multipurpose domestic satellite, launched on board USA’s space shuttle ‘Challenger’ ( 30 August ).

1984 : The first joint Indo – Soviet manned space mission launched ( 3 April ). Sqn.Ldr. Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian cosmonaut.

1985 : Two Indians selected for Indo – US joint shuttle flight.

1987 : ASLV with SROSS – 1 satellite on board launched.

1988 : First Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS – 1A launched from Baikanour, USSR ( March 17 ). INSAT – 1C launched from Kourou, French Guyana ( July 2 ). Later, abandoned as non – usable.

1990 : INSAT – 1D launched from Cape Canaveral, USA ( June 12 ).

1991 : Second remote sensing satellite IRS – 1B launched from the Soviet Union ( August 29 ).

1992 : Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle ( ASLV – D3 ) launched with stretched Rohini Satellite System SROSS – C on board ( May 20 ). First indigenously built satellite, INSAT – 2A launched from Kourou, French Guyana ( July 10 ).

1993 : INSAT – 2B launched ( July 23 ).

1994 : ASLV – D4 launched with SROSS – C2 as payload ( May 4 ). PSLV with IRS – P2 launched ( October ).

1995 : INSAT – 2C launched from Kourou, French Guyana ( December 7 ).

1996 : P5LV – D3 with IRS – P3 launched ( March ).

1997 : INSAT – 2D launched ( June 4 ), became in operational in October. ARABSAT ( later renamed INSAT – 2DT ) acquired in November, first operational launch of PSLV with IRS – ID ( September ).

1999 : INSAT – 2E launched ( May ). IRS – P4 launched by indigenously built PSLV – C2 vehicles.

2000 : INSAT – 3B launched ( 22nd March, 2000 ). 2601 : GSLV – D1 lifted off on ( 18th April, 2001 ); PSLV – C3 launched ( 22 – 10 – 2001 )

2002 : INSAT – 3C launched ( 24 – 01 – 2002 ); METSAT, India’s first Meteorological satellite launched ( 12th September,2002 )

2003: GSAT – 2 launched ( 8th May, 2003 ); INSAT – 3E launched ( 28th September, 2003 ) from French Guyana by Arian – 5 launch vehicle; PSLV – C5 launched ( 17th October, 2003 )

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2004 : EDUSAT launched ( 20th September, 2004 ) from Sriharikota.

2005 : PSLV – C6 ( Cartosat – 1 & Hamsat ) launched ( 5th May, 2005 ) from Sriharikota.

2005 : INSAT – 4A launched ( 22nd December, 2005 ) by Arian – 5G launch vehicle from Sriharikota.

2006 : INSAT – 4C ( GSLV – F02 ) unsuccessfully launched on 10th July, 2006 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota ( Andhra Pradesh ).

2007 : PSLV – C7 ( Cartosat – 2, SRE – 1, Lapan Tubsat, Penuensat – 1 ) launched on 10th January, 2007 from Sriharikota.

2007 : On March 12, INSAT – 4B was successfully launched from Kourou island in French Guiana.

2007 : On April 23, PSLV – C8 was successfully launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota.

2007: INSAT – 4CR ( GSLV ) successfully launched on 2nd September, 2007 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota ( Andhra Pradesh ) for Direct Digital Services to Home.

2008 : PSLV C – 10 launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota ( Andhra Pradesh ) successfully puts Tecsar, an Israelian remote sensing satellite on Jan 21, 2008.

2008 : PSLV C – 9 launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Cenui – Sriharikota ( Andhra Pradesh ) successfully puts 10 satellites ( Two for India, eight for various countries ) on April 28, 2008.

2008 : PSLV C – 11 ( Chandrayaan – I ) successfully launched at Sriharikota ( Andhra Ptadesh ) on October 22, 2008.

2009 : PSLV C – 12 ( Resat, Ansat ) successfully launched at Sriharikota ( Andhra Pradesh ) on April 20, 2009.

2009 : PSLV C – 14 ( Oceansat – 2, 6 nano satellites ) successfully launched at Sriharikota ( Andhra Pradesh ) on September 23, 2009.

2010 : GSLV D – 3 launched from Sriharikota on April 15, 2010. This mission was a failure.

2010 : PSLV C – 15 ( Cartosat – 2B ), 4 satellites was successfully launched on July 12, 2010 from Sriharikota.

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The Indian Space program was formally organised in 1972 to promote development and application of space technology in the areas of telecommunication, television broadcasting, meteorology, resources survey and management. Development of satellites, launch vehicles and associated ground systems is integrated in the space program objective. The space program is executed through Indian Space Research Organisation ( ISRO ), National Remote Sensing Agency and Physical Research Laboratory.

Indian Space Research Organisation ( ISRO ) comprises :

  • Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre ( VSSC ), Thiruvananthapuram.
  • SHAR Centre, Sriharikota.
  • ISRO Satellite Centre ( ISAC ), Bengalooru.
  • Auxiliary Propulsion System Unit ( APSU ), Bengalooru.
  • Space Applications Centre ( SAC ), Ahmedabad.
  • Development and Educational Communication Unit ( DECU ), Ahmedabad.
  • ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network ( ISTRAC ) with its headquarters at Bengalooru.

The Indian National Satellite System ( INSAT ) is a multi – purpose satellite system for telecommunications, meteorological observations and data relay, television broadcasting and radio and television program distribution. INSAT system was established in 1983 with the commissioning of INSAT – 1B. Today, the system is served by the first generation satellite ) INSAT – 1D, three ISRO – built second generation satellites, INSAT – 2B, INSAT – 2C and INSAT – 2E, and INSAT – 2DT procured from ARABSAT INSAT has enabled a vast expansion – in the television service with over 900 TV transmitters linked through INSAT, providing access to over 85 per cent of the population.

The Indian Remote Sensing ( IRS ) satellite system was operationalised with the commissioning of IRS – IA in 1988. The IRS system has been further enhanced by IRS – 1B, IRS – 1C, IRS P3 and IRS – 1D. IRS – 1C and IRS – 1D have enhanced capabilities in terms of spatial resolution, additional spectral bands, J stereoscopic imaging, wide field coverage and a more frequent revisity capability than their predecessors. Another satellite IRS – P4 ( OCEANSAT ) was launched on 26.5.1999 from SHAR Centre, Sriharikota as the main payloadl and Korean KITSAT – 3 and German DLR – TUBSAT as the auxiliary payloads. Remote Sensing applications in the country cover diverse fields such as crop acreage and yield estimation, drought warning and assessment, flood control and damage assessment, wasteland management, under – ground water exploration, etc.

ANTRIX : The commercial arm of ISRO is a single window agency for marketing Indian space capabilities. India started launch vehicle development in a modest way through SLV – 3 which could put 40 kg class satellite into near earth orbit. The capability was further enhanced through ASLV which injected the SROSS satellites.

The Geo – synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle ( GSLV ), which will be capable of placing 2,500 kg INSAT class of satellites in geo – synchronous transfer orbit, lifted off on 18th April, 2001 from Sriharikota Range. Previously, it was scheduled to launch on March 28, 2001 but the mission aborted just a second before it was to lift off, as one of the strap – on engines failed to derive adequate thrust.

  • PSLV – C3 was launched on 22th October, 2001 carrying an Indian Technology Experiments Satellite ( TES ), the German space agency, DLR’s satellite, BIRD ( Bispectral Infrared Detection Satellite ) and a Belgian firm’s satellite PROBA ( Project for On Board Autonomy ).
  • INSAT – 3C was launched on 24th January, 2002 from the French Guyanese Spaceport, Kourou.
  • METSAT on 13th September 2002 and GSAT – 2 on 8th May 2003 were launched from Sriharikota. Communication satellite INSAT – 3E was launched from French Guyana on 28th September, 2003.
  • PSLV – C5 and EDUSAT satellites were launched on 17th October 2003 and 20th September 2004 respectively from Sriharikota.
  • PSLV – C6 ( Cartosat – 1 & Hamsat ) was launched from Sriharikota on 5th May, 2005.
  • INSAT – 4A launched ( 22 – 12 – 2005 ) by Arian – 5G launch vehicle from Sriharikota.
  • INSAT – 4C ( GSLV – F02 ) unsuccessfully launched on 10th July, 2006 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota ( Andhra Pradesh ).
  • PSLV – C7 ( Cartosat – 2, SRE – 1, LapanTubsat, Penuensat – 1 ) successfully launched on 10.1.2007 from Sriharikota.
  • INSAT – 4B was successfully launched by Ariane Space’s Ariane – 5 Vehicle from Kourou island in French Guiana on March 12, 2007.

The satellite is intended to augment the Direct to Home ( DTH ) television and communication services. The vehicle lifted off with INSAT – 4B and co – passengers Skynet – 5A, a military communication satellite of UK.

  • PSLV – C8 was successfully launched on April 23, 2007. The launch vehicle also carried an Italian astronomical satellite AGILE from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. It was the first commercial launch of a foreign satellite.
  • INSAT – 4CR ( GSLV ) successfully launched on 2 – 9 – 2007 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota ( Andhra Pradesh ).
  • For Direct Digital Services to Home, PSLV C – 10 launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota ( Andhra Pradesh ) successfully puts Tecsar, an Israelian remote sensing satellite on Jan 21, 2008.
  • PSLV C – 9 launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota ( Andhra Pradesh ) successfully puts 10 satellites ( Two for India, eight for various countries ) on April 28, 2008.
  • PSLV C – 11 ( Chandrayaan – 1 ) launched successfully for moon researching on October 22, 2008.
  • PSLV C – 12 was successfully launched on April 20, 2009 from the Satish Dhavan Space Centre ( SDSC ), Sriharikota. It carries a 545 – kg Resat satellite designed by Israel and a 38 – kg Annsat of Anna University.
  • PSLV C – 14 The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle roars its way to success from the Sriharikota spaceport and puts in orbit India’s Oceansst – 2 and six foreign nano satellites on September 23, 2009.

The space science research is carried out at Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, Space Physics Laboratory, Thiruvanantha – puram, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore. A National Mesosphere – Stratosphere Radar Facility ( NMRF ) at Gadanki ( near Tirupati ) studies atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric turbulence, cloud physics, etc.

The concept of GRAMSAT is ( GRAMEEN Satellite ) to spread literacy in the rural areas and to update the knowledge of workers on the shop floor. This ( GRAMSATS ) would be a dedicated system incorporating the talk – back facility by which workers can put questions to the telecaster and get answers at once. It is also used for spreading national integration as two such satellites can cover all areas and languages throughout the country. For instance Kanadians living in Tamilnadu can listen programs in their languages as well. Each of such GRAMSAT will cost ₹ 60 crores.

{tab=Milestones of Indian Space Programs}

Milestones in Indian Space Programs

TestDateDayTime
Part - A Written test 13th June, 2012 Wednesday 10:00 am to 12:00 pm
Part - B Practical / Interview 15th June, 2012Friday11:00 am
1.Sale and download of application and prospectus from2th September, 2010.
2.SVU Distance Education Last date for submission of application without fine10th November, 2010 ( for B.Ed and OUS: 10th December, 2010 )
3.SVU Distance Education Entrance test for open university system is on19th December, 2010.

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