Study which deals with the cell is called cytology.
Cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665 in sections of cork. He only coined the term ‘Cell’.
The Cell Theory was given by Schleiden and Schwan.
Cell Theory states that :
- All living things are composed of cells and their products.
- All cells arise from pre – existing Cells.
- All cells are basically alike in Chemical Composition and Metabolic Activities.
- The function of an organism as a whole is the outcome of the activities and interaction of the Constituent Cells.
Types of Cells :
In a typical cell, the protoplasm consists of nucleus and cytoplasm.
Depending on the type of nucleus present, the cells are of two types :
- Prokaryotic cell (found in blue – green algae, bacteria and Pleuropneumonia like organisms (PPLO).
- Eukaryotic Cell.
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On the basis of number of cells, the organisms are classified as Unicellular and Multi – cellular organisms.
Difference between Plant Cells and Animal Cells :
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- Huxley called protoplasm as ‘Physical basis of life’.
- Ostrich egg is the largest cell in size.
- Human nerve cell is the longest animal cell.
- Largest cellular plant Acetabularia is 10 cm and animal is Amoeba, which is 1 mm.
- In human beings, cells of kidney are the smallest.
- Smallest cell is 0.1 – 0.3 µm in size. It is PPLO (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)