The technique of in – vitro fertilization (IVF) and in – vitro development followed by the embryo transfer in the uterus of the normal female to start the development and finally leading to normal birth is called test tube baby.
It is basically conceived by artificial insemination.
Methodology involves the following steps :
- Removal of unfertilized ovum from reproductive tract of a female.
- Ovum is kept under aseptic conditions.
- Fusion of sperm and ovum in a culture medium, outside the female body to form the zygote.
- Zygote is stimulated to develop in vitro up to 32 – celled stage.
- Developing embryo is implanted on the endometrium of the uterus at 32 – celled stage. So the pregnancy in the woman starts and further the development of the child continues in the womb till it is born.
The IVF technology is a boon to childless couples. First attempt to produce a test tube baby was made by an Italian scientist Dr. Petrucci in 1959. But this human embryo survived for only 29 days.
The World’s first test tube baby (a baby girl) named as Louise Joy Brown was born on July 25, 1978 in Great Britain.
India’s first test tube baby was born in Calcutta on October 3rd, 1978. Her name is Durga.
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