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Amedeo Avogadro (1776 to 1856), Italian physicist and chemist is one of the founders of physical chemistry.
In 1796 Amedeo Avogadro received his doctorate in ecclesiastical law.
1809-20 professor of natural philosophy.
In 1811 Amedeo Avogadro advanced Avogadro’s hypothesis / law which states that equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules. It is strictly true for ideal gases only. The term ‘molecule’ was coined by him. Shall we name him as the ‘father of molecule’.
Amedeo Avogadro distinguished between atoms and molecules, between atomic weight and molecular weight. He established the chemical formula of water as H20 (rather than, the till then thought of HO, refer John Dalton).
1820-22 & 1834-50 occupied the chair of mathematical, physics at the University of Turin.
Avogadro’s number or constant: the specific number of molecules in one mole of any substance. Its value is 6.02252 xlOth power23.
Amedeo Avogadro Mole :
The SI base unit of amount of substance that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of Carbon12— i.e., in 12g of carbon 12. The elementary entities may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, photons, etc. One mole contains 6.02252 x 1023 entities.
A single atom or group of atoms joined by chemical bonds. It is the smallest unit of a chemical compound that can have an independent existence.
Avogadro’s law / hypothesis was virtually ignored by chemists in 1811 but in 1858 Cannizzaro, a fellow Italian scientist and contemporary of Avogadro defined it further and made it scientific.
Amedeo Avogadro died at the age of eighty. The 100th anniversary of the publication of Avogadro’s Law was celebrated in Turin, Italy in the year 1911, which ranked as a world event.
Molecular biology :
Biology is the science of living things. Molecular biology is the study of molecules involved in life functions, the probe of the problem at its grassroot level, viz., molecule – to quote an instance, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is an example of a self-replicating molecule which is found in the chromosomes of all higher organisms; attempts to replicate DNA molecules, in vivo, include cloning, recombinant technology.
Molecular biology is the promising field for future research.