**Ancient Mathematician — Mathematics is the Mother of all Sciences – Scientist Euclid**

Scientist Euclid, Father of Geometry, the ancient and most prominent mathematician of antiquity was known to have lived in Alexandria, Egypt round about 300 B.C. His treatise on geometry, the Elements, a book with a set of 13 volumes was written on papyrus; may it be known that printing was not yet invented by that time.

This book was translated later into various languages. Next to Bible, the Elements was the increasingly published and most read book.

The English translation of the Elements was done by Sir Henry Billingsley;

The Thirteen books of Scientist Euclid’s Elements were translated by T.L. Heath.

**Scientist Euclid’s predecessors**

1. Thales, a Greek mathematician who studied Egyptian geometry methods in navigation, astronomy, land measurements and pyramid construction.

2. Egyptian surveyors of land were called ‘rope stretchers’. They used a rope triangle; by stretching the sides, the angles of the triangle would vary.

3. Pythagoras, Plato.

4. Hippocrates of Chios (5th century B.C.); not to be confused with the noted physician Hippocrates of Cos, the Father of Medicine (who flourished in 4th Century B.C.).

It is recorded that Euclid was educated in Plato’s Academy, a prestigious institution for mathematical education in those days.

“A scientist has to satisfy his curiosity by deducing facts only from already known principles; next, method of reasoning which has stood the test of time in logic would lead to research — this method is called deductive reasoning.”

Scientist Euclid started with simple definitions called axioms later combined them into statements called theorems.

Egypt has been praised as the “Gift of the Nile” because it used to bring fertile soil from the mountains.

Later Nile became the “River of Sorrow” since it was causing damage by floods and spreading the disease, Schistosomiasis; however, it was harnessed by the construction of Aswan Dam and restored to its previous glory as a gift to Egypt.

The land surveyors used to have a problem in measuring and allotting land to peasants. Geometrical methods/ropes helped them.

Ptolemy I Scoter who reigned Egypt from 323 to 283 B.C. who was himself a learned man used to respect and honour poets, artists, mathematicians, astronomers and scientists; Euclid had his favour and recognition.

The king established a museum in Alexandria and converted it into a library with 7 lakh books, all on papyrus, of course.

Egyptians are known for their art of preservation, e.g., mummies; unfortunately they could not preserve papyrus books.

The pyramids of Egypt, one of the Seven Wonders of the World and the Sphinx were really feats in geometrical structures.

Euclid made geometry into a logical subject. The principles of mechanics, sound, light, navigation, astronomy, biology, medicine and allied sciences are based on the concepts of Euclid. Mathematics is the mother of all sciences.

Where is not mathematics? Life activities depend on mathematics; for instance, walking, running, driving a vehicle involve mathematics because in the above activities speed and distance of objects are computed in the inner conscience.

Scientist Euclid was well-versed in music and optics, too. The Elements of Music was written by him.

The word Euclidian geometry was coined.

Abraham Lincoln studied Scientist Euclid’s books to develop the power of reasoning.