If I have seen a little further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants – Issac Newton
Issac Newton Scientist(1642 to 1727), Discoverer of Gravity Laws.
Issac Newton Scientist was born on December 25, 1642 on Christmas Day at Lincolnshire, a Christmas gift to the Scientific world.
Newton Scientist was born prematurely to a frustrated widow as a tiny tot, undersized, low birth weight, hardly expected to survive. But lo! angel of Luck nurtured him to grow as a giant in Science with a fruitful life-span of 85 years.
Newton Scientist studied at the Grantham Grammar School and did his BA at Trinity College, Cambridge.
In 1665, while holidaying, Newton Scientist noticed a ripe apple falling on the ground with a ‘thud’. He argued in himself, “why did the apple fall on earth straight down, not to right, left or up into the sky?”
Newton Scientist concluded that gravity is the force of attraction between two bodies, viz., the earth and apple.
All bodies attract each other by some force. However, mass is not the only factor concerned with the force, but ‘distance’ also is another factor of equal importance.
According to this law, every body in this universe attracts every other body with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two bodies.
The question was whether gravity extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit.
Newton Scientist guessed that the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and named it “universal gravitation”.
Earth had drawn the apple towards it by virtue of gravity. Newton showed us that what was true of the apple and the Earth is also true of planets and the sun.
“Why is the moon hovering above the earth? Why does not the Moon fall on the earth like the apple?” – Such questions always haunted him. There must be some force interacting between the Earth and the Moon preventing this catastrophe!
This law was unchallenged for over two centuries until Albert Einstein put forth his theory of relativity. Einstein opined that Newton’s above law was valid as long as one was dealing with weak gravitational forces as present on earth.
But, when considered in context to black holes, quasars etc., wherein powerful gravitational forces with intense electromagnetic radiation are involved, Newton’s law did not apply.
Newton Scientist Expertise
- His hand-made stone sundial, now in the possession of the Royal Society of London.
- His view about the cornerstone of scientific advancement; “The best and safest way of doing scientific work seems to be, first to enquire diligently into the properties of things, and of establishing these properties by experiment, and then to proceed slowly to theories for the explanation of them”.
- The “Principia” – three sections called “books”, a unique work in Latin emphasized that all motions, whether on earth or in the sky, were expressed by the same laws. In the third book he calculated the mass of the sun and of the earth.
Newton Scientist Contributions
* Three laws of motion.
[Caution! Never mistake motion for action.]
1) An object continues in a state of rest or constant velocity unless acted on by an external force.
2) The resultant force acting on an object is proportional to the rate of change of momentum of the object, the change of momentum being in the same direction as the force. F = m x a
Force = mass x acceleration
3) If one object exerts a force on another object, then there is an equal and opposite force (reaction) on the first object exerted by the second, [figurative comment: this is an experience in daily life].
VIBGYOR: Sunlight which appears white is a mixture of seven colours, violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. By rotating the Newton’s Disc, the seven colours are merged into white.
- Newton’s law of cooling.
- Newton’s rings, Interference patterns. Calculus:
A branch of Mathematics.
Newton Scientist Other Achievements
Worked as a Professor of Mathematics at the age of 27 in Trinity College. In 1703, he was elected as President of the Royal Society and re-elected every year until his death. In 1705, he was knighted by Queen Anne.
Newton Scientist deserved the three letters ‘New’ in his name, by virtue of his inventions. Newton Scientist thinking was always new. By definition, Newton is a person who is new in his ideas [Cf. simpleton].
Newton Scientist died on March 20, 1727 in London. Newton Scientist was buried in Westminster Abbey, a prerogative for selected few. Though dead, he is immortal – nuance in ‘New’ whether alive or dead!
To readers Happy New year to you every year.
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