General Knowledge : Scientists : Famous Scientists in the World

Famous Scientists in the World

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Indian Scientists

Indian Scientists

1. Aryabhatta ( 476  -  520 A. D. ) : He was a great mathematician and an astronomer. His contributions include about the movement of earth around the Sun, determination of various physical parameters of various celestial bodies, such as diameter of Earth and Moon. He laid foundations of algebra and pointed out the importance of zero. The first Indian satellite was named after him.

2. Bhagavantam :  His -  contribution to radio astronomy and cosmic rays is noteworthy. An associate of Sir C.V.Raman, Dr.S.Bhagavantam was scientific adviser in the Ministry of Defence and Director General of Defence Research Development Organisation.

3. Bhaskaracharya : Born in 1114 A.D. Bhaskaracharya was a great Hindu mathematician and Astronomer. His work ‘Sidhanta Siromani’ consists of two parts of mathematics and two parts of astronomy. He had a foresight on the modem theory of conventions.

4.  S.S. Bhatnagar ( 1895 – 1955 ) : He was a great Indian Scientist. He was the first Director General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Under his directorship, many research laboratories, were established throughout India.

5. J.C.Bose ( 1858 – 1937 ) : He was an eminent Physicist and Botanist. He founded Bose Research Institute, Kolkata. He invented Crescograph.

6. S.N. Bose : He became well – known when he expounded the Bose Einstein theory which deals with the detection of a group of nuclear particles – named after him ‘Boson’. His contribution to Planck’s Law is laudable. He died in 1974.

7. Dr. S. Chandrasekhar : An Indian – born American, who won Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983. He is an Astrophysicist. His theory of Stellar Evolution – the birth and death of stars is 35 years old. His first discovery was laughed at. After three decades, it was recognised and today he is a Nobel Laureate. According to his theory, the old stars just collapse and disappear in the light of denser stars of low light popularly called ‘Chandrasekhar Limit’.General Studies Question Bank CD

8. Charaka ( 80 – 180 A.D. ) : He was a court physician of King Kanishka. His writings on Hindu Medicine are invaluable.

9. Dhanvantri ( 375 – 413 A.D. ) :  He was a great physician during the period of Chandragupta Vikramaditya.

10.  Hargobind Khorana : He created an artificial gene and deciphered genetic code. He was awarded Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1968.

11. Homi J. Bhaba : He largely contributed to the development of Atomic Physics and he was primarily responsible for setting up of Nuclear reactors in India. He published important papers on Quantum Theory, Cosmic Rays, Structure of atom, etc. He was the first Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission. He died in a plane crash in 1966 over Alps.

12. Joshi : Prof. S.S. Joshi’s works on physical and chemical reaction under electrical discharge on active nitrogen, colloids, hydrogen peroxide are noteworthy.

13. Nagarjuna : A great Buddhist Philosopher and Chemist. He mentioned about crucibles, sublimation, colouring process etc. His works are still available in China and Tibet. His theory on extraction of copper and metallic oxides are mention – worthy.

14. Nag Chowdhury B.D. : An eminent Indian Nuclear Physicist known; all over the world.

15. Narlikar : J.V.Narlikar was the co – author of Hoyle – Narlikar theory of continuous creation which supplies missing links in Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Hoyle and Narlikar have shown that the gravitation is always attractive and there is no gravitational repulsions.

16. Raja Ramanna : A great nuclear scientist, who was instrumental to stage India’s first Nuclear explosion at Pokhran range in 1974.

17. Sir C.V. Raman : First Indian Scientist to receive Nobel prize for Physics in 1929 for his invention‘Raman Effect’. His study of crystal structure is of unique importance. He founded Raman Research Institute at Bangalore.

18. Sir CP. Roy ( 1861 – 1944 ) : Author of ‘Hindu Chemistry’. He founded Indian Chemical Society and Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. He has done good work on nitrous acid and its salts.

19. Prof. V. Ramachandra Rao : Director of Indian Scientific Satellite Project ( ISSP ) at Peenya near Bangalore.

20.  Saha Dr. Maghnad ( 1893  – 1956 ) : Late Palit Prof. of Physics, College of Scientific and Technology, Kolkata University well – known for his; researches in nuclear physics, cosmic rays, spectrum analysis and other, branches of theoretical physics.

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21. Srinivasa Ramanujam ( 1887 – 1920 ) : A mathematical wizard, contributed much to Number Theory, Theory of Partitions and Theory of Continuous Fractions. His birth centenary was celebrated in 1987.

22. Satish Dhavan : He was chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation. He was instrumental to take India into space age by launching Aryabhatta in 1975. The space centre of Sriharikota is named after him.

23. Susnita : A fourth century Hindu Surgeon and Physician. He had written an important book on medicine and on medical properties of garlic.

24. Varahamihira : An Indian astronomer and astrologer of 6th Century A.D. He was a mathematician and philosopher. He was one of the nine gems of King Vikramaditya.

Indian Noble Laureates

25. Rabindranath Tagore – Nobel Prize for Literature ( 1913 ) : He was the first recipient of this award from India. In the year 1913, Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his work “Gitanjali“. He was one of greatest poets of India and the composer of national anthem of India.

26. C.V. Raman – Nobel Prize for Physics ( 1930 ) : He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for his discovery of “Raman Effect”. Raman Effect is useful in the study of molecular energy levels, structure development, and multi component qualitative analysis.

27. Dr. Har Gobind Khorana – Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology ( 1968 ) : He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1968 for producing the first man – made gene in his laboratory in the early seventies. His discovery won him the Nobel Prize sharing it with Marshall Nuremberg and Robert Holley for interpreting the genetic code and analyzing its function in protein synthesis.

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28. Mother Teresa ( 1910 – 1997 ) – Nobel Prize for peace ( 1979 ) :  She was the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in the year 1979. This was in recognition for the path breaking efforts to help the poor and underprivileged people through the establishment of the Missionaries of Charity, Calcutta, India.

29. Dr. Subramanyan Chandrasekhar – Nobel Prize for physics ( 1983 ) : He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1983 for Physics for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of stars. He received this award jointly with Wilfred Alfred Fowler for their collaborative research work. Chandrasekhar is also known as the nephew of another legendary scientist and Nobel laureate, Sir C.V. Raman.

30. Dr. Amartya Sen – Nobel Prize for Economics ( 1998 ) : He was honored with the Nobel Prize in 1988 for his work in Welfare economics. Sen is best known for his research on famines, his work on women – the attention he has drawn to their unequal status in the developing world, and his calls for gender – specific aid programs.

31. VS. Naipaul – Nobel Prize for Literature ( 2001 ) : He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2001 for his extensive works in English Literature. He is well known not only for his indomitable command over the use of the English Language but also for his vivid and descriptive stories.

32. Venkatraman Ramakrishnan – Nobel Prize for Chemistry ( 2009 ) : He was awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2009 for his studies in the structure and function of the ribosome.


Prominent Scientists

Most Prominent Scientists in the World

1. Alvares, Luis W. : An American won the Nobel Prize for Elementary Physics in 1960 when he discovered a new resonance particle – a discovery that shattered the then prevailing notions as to how matter was built.

2. Anfinsen, Dr. Christian B. : U.S.A.’s one of the three co – winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1972.

3. Archimedes ( 287 – 212 B.C. ) : Greek mathematician who lived about 250 B.C. He discovered the Archimedes’ Principle, and Archimedean Screw, a cylindrical device for raising water.

4. Arrow, Kenneth, J. : Harvard University, U.S.A. is co – winner of the Nobel Prize for Economics, 1972 with Sir John Richard Hicks of Oxford University. The two men are known for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium and welfare theories.

5. Avogadro, Amedeo ( 1776 – 1856 A.D. ) : Italian physicist; founder of Avogadro’s hypothesis. He also defined equal volume of all gases under STP contains equal number of molecules.

6. Bardeen, Prof. John : U.S.A.’s co – winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, 1972 ( with Prof. Leon N. Cooper and Prof. John Robert Schrieffer ) for researches into the “theory of super – conductivity” called BCS theory.

7. Barnard, Christian :  South African surgeon who did the first heart transplant operation on Louis Washkansky in 1967.

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8. Beadle, Dr. G. ( One gene one hypothesis theory ) : American scientist awarded Nobel Prize for medicine in 1958 for the actual basis of heredity.

9. Becquerel, Henri ( 1852 – 1908 A.D. ) : French physicist discovered in 1896 of Becquerel rays, the first indications of radio – activity; later named ‘gamma rays.’ He shared Nobel Prize for Physics with the Curies in 1903.

10.  Berzelius, J.J ( 1779 – 1848 A.D. ) : Swedish Chemist, known for chemical shorthand symbols and atomic weights.

11.  Bessemer, Sir Henry ( 1813 – 1898 A.D. ) :  English engineer invented the process for the manufacture of steel.

12. Bhabha, Dr. H.J. ( 1909 – 66 A.D. ) : Indian scientist. He published important papers on Cosmic Rays and Quantum Theory. He was professor at the Indian Science Institute, Bangalore; Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; Director, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research; President, Indian Science Congress in 1951 and presided at the Atoms for Peace Conference held at Geneva in 1956. He had many significant researches in structure of atom and contributed largely to the setting up of atomic reactors at Trombay ( Mumbai ).

13. Bohr, Neils ( born 1885 ) : Danish Physicist awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. He extended the theory of atomic structure of devising an atomic model in 1913.

14. Boyle, Robert ( 1627 – 1691 A.D. ) : Irish natural philosopher; one of the founders of modem chemistry and Boyle’s Law

15. Bragg, Sir William ( 1862 – 1942 A.D. ) : British physicist researched on the behaviour of crystals with regard to X – rays incident upon them.

16. Cavendish, Henry ( 1731 – 1810 A.D. ) : English physicist and chemist; discovered properties of hydrogen in 1766.

17. Chadwick, Sir James  ( 1891 – 1974 A.D. ) : British physicist discovered the particle in an atomic nucleus known as the ‘neutron’, because it has no electric charge.

18. Charles, Jacques Alexander Cesar ( 1746 – 1823 A.D. ) : A French scientist first to make a balloon ascension with hydrogen. He has worked on the effect of temperature on the volume of gases.

19. Clark Maxwell, James ( 1831 – 1879 A.D. ) : British physicist worked wireless telegraphy and telephony. His principal works include : Perception of Colour, Colour Blindness, Theory of Heat, Electricity and Magnetism, Matter and Motion.

20. Claude, Albert : A Biologist shared the 1974 Nobel Prize in Medicine, His field of research relates to causes and treatment of cancer.

21.  Columbus, Christopher ( 1446 – 1506 A.D. ) : Italian navigator discovered West Indies Islands, Cuba, Bahamas, South America in 1498.

22.  Cooper, Leon N. :  Of U.S.A. one of the three co – winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics, 1972 for theory of super – conductivity.

23.  Copernicus ( 1413 – 1543 A.D. ) : Astronomer of Poland who discovered the “Heliocentric system”.

24. Curie, Madame Marie ( 1867 – 1934 A.D. ) : Polish physicist and chemist; discovered radium; awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911 and Prize in physics in 1903.

25. Dalton, John ( 1766 – 1844 A.D. ) : British scientist, founder of the Atomic Theory and Law of Multiple Proportions.

26. Darwin, Charles ( 1809 – 1882 A.D. ) : British scientist who discovered the principle of natural selection and theory of evolution.

27. Davy, Sir Humphrey ( 1771 – 1829 A.D. ) : British chemist. First to apply electric current for the isolation of metals. He also invented safety lamp.

28. Debreu, Gerard : Awarded 1983 Nobel prize in Economics, is known for his research on market equilibrium incorporated “new analytic methods into economic theory”.

29.  Delbruck, Dr. Max ( 1906 – 1981 A.D. ) : Biophysicist and, American doctor, was one of the three American co – winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1969 for discoveries in molecular genetics.

30. Edelman, Dr. Gerald Maurice :  Of U.S.A. is co – winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1972 found out “the chemical structure of blood – proteins or antibodies which shield the human body against infection

31.  Edison, Thomas Alva ( 1847 – 1931 A.D. ) : American inventor of phonograph, the incandescent lamp, a new type pf storage battery, an early form of cinematography etc.

32. Einstein, Prof. Albert ( 1879 – 1955 A.D. ) : German – Swiss, famous scientist known for his ‘Theory of Relativity’. He won the Nobel prize for the invention of Photo – electric effect.

33.  Faraday, Michael ( 1791 – 1867 A.D. ) : English scientist; prominent in the field of electro – magnetism; discovered the Laws of Electrolysis.

34.  Fleming, Alexander ( 1881 – 1955 A.D. ) : British bacteriologist discovered Lysozyme ( 1922 ), followed by Penicillin ( 1929 ) and antibiotic drug.

35. Fleming, Sir John Ambrose ( 1849 – 1945 A.D. ) : British physicist and engineer, pioneer in the development of the telephone, electric light and radio.

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36.  Fraunhofer, Joseph von ( 1787 – 1826 A.D. ) : German physicist researched on ‘Light’ while performing spectrum – analysis of Sunlight discovered ‘Fraunhofer Lines’.

37. Freud, Sigmund  ( Father of Psychology ) (1856 – 1939 A.D. ) : Psycho – analist. Works : The Interpretation of Dreams; The Psychopathology of Every – day Life; The Ego and the Id; Civilization and Its Discontents.

38.  Gabor, Dr Dennis ( 1900 – 1979 A.D. ) : 1971 Nobel Prize award for Physics for his invention in “Development of the Holographic Method” – three dimensional photography

39.  Galileo Galilei ( 1564 – 1642 A.D. ) : Italian scientist viewed that all falling bodies, great or small, descend with equal velocity, invented telescope and became the first man to see the satellites of Jupiter.

40. Gell – Mann, Prof. Murray ( 1929 – A.D. ) : Recipient of the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics, for his “Classification of Elementary Particles and Their Interactions”.

41. Goddard, Robert H. ( 1882 – 1945 ) : An American pioneer of space research who mentioned the possibility of shooting a rocket to the moon in a paper entitled “A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes91 published by him in 1919.

42. Graham, Thomas ( 1805 – 1914 A.D. ) :  Scottish chemist called the “Father of Colloidal Chemistry”. He worked on diffusion of substances in solution.

43. Hahn, Otto :  German pioneer of nuclear research, won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944, proved in 1938 that atomic fission can be achieved by bombarding uranium with neutrons.

44. Hall, Charles Martin ( 1863 – 1914 A.D. ) : American chemist discovered the modern method of extraction of aluminium by electrolysis of bauxite in 1886.

45. Harvey, William ( 1578 – 1675 A.D. ) : English physician who discovered the circulation of blood.

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46. Herzberg, Dr. Gehard : The 1971 Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry, for his researches in atomic and molecular structures, particularly free radicals.

47. Holley, Robert : Nobel Prize winner for Medicine, 1968, the genetic code and its function in building protein led to the discovery of “the complete structure of a transfer of RNA molecule”.

48. Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland : English biochemist worked on proteins and vitamins. He received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1929 for the discovery of Vitamin D.

49. Hoyle, Sir Freud ( 1915 A.D. ) : A British scientist and science – fiction writer who won the £ 1,000 Kalinga Prize in 1968.

50. Jenner, Edward ( 1749 – 1823 A.D. ) : English physician discovered the vaccination system of alleviating small pox.

51. Josephson, Dr. Brian ( 1940 A.D. ) :  British scientist who co – shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physics for his “theoretical predictions of the properties of a super – current through a tunnel barrier, known as Josephson effects”.

52. Joule, James Prescott ( 1874 – 1937 A.D. ) : English physicist who first demonstrated the mechanical energy can be converted into heat.

53. Kepler, Johannes ( 1571 – 1630 A.P. ) :  German astronomer discovered 3 laws of planetary motion ( 1 ) The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the foci;  ( 2 ) the Radius vector of each planet describes equal areas in equal times; ( 3 ) The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the Sun.

54. Khorana, Hargobind : Shared with two others the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine is an Indian by birth and an American by domicile. He deciphered the genetic code and later created an artificial gene.

55. Krishnan, Dr. K.S. ( born 1898 ) : collaborated with Sir C.V.Raman in the discovery of “Raman Effect”. President, Indian Science Congress, 1949; delegate to severed international scientific conferences; Director, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi.

56. Lavoisier, A.L. (1743 – 1794 A.D. ) : French chemist; established “Law of Indestructibility of Matter, Composition of Water and Air”.

57. Lister, Joseph (1827 – 1912 A.D. ) : British surgeon who used antiseptic treatment for wounds; introduced antiseptic surgery.

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58. Lodge, Sir Oliver Joseph ( 1851 – 1940 A.D. ) : British physicist, known for his researches on radiation, and the relation between matter and ether.

59. Lysenko, Trofim Denisovich ( 1898 – 1976 A.D. ) : Soviet geneticist declared the “Mendelian Theory obsolete and erroneous” in 1948.

60. Thomas Marconi ( 1873 – 1937 A.D. ) : Italian scientist, pioneer in wireless telegraphy and radio.

61. McClintock, Barbara : 1983 Nobel Prize winner in Medicine for her discovery of jumping gene.

62. Max Planck : German theoretical physicist who formulated the quantum theory. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1918.

63. Mendel, Johann Gregory ( 1822 – 1884 A.D. ) : Austrian monk and naturalist discovered certain principles of inheritance of heredity.

64.  Mendeleef, D.I. ( 1834 – 1901 A.D. ) : Russian chemist, founder of periodic law based on atomic weight and the development of petroleum and other industries in Russia.

65. Meyer, Victor ( 1848 – 1897 A.D. ) : Discovered a method to determine the molecular weights of volatile substances.

66. Morley, Edward William ( 1818 – 1923 A.D. ) : American chemist and physicist known for his work in determining the composition of water by weight.

67. Moseley, Henry G. ( 1887 – 1915 A.D. ) : British physicist worked on atomic structure, and in 1913, devised the series of atomic numbers.

68. Newton, Sir Isaac ( 1642 – 1727 A.D. )  :  British natural philosopher discovered “Binomial Theorem; The differential and Integral Calculus and the Universal Law of Gravitation”.

69. Nirenberg, Dr. Marshall : U.S.molecular biologist, 1968 Nobel Prize winner for Medicine with Dr. Robert Holley and Dr. Hargobind Khorana.

70. Ohm, George Simon ( 1787 – 1854 A.D. ) : Physicist and mathematician; discovered the law known as Ohm’s Law.’ ( V = IR )

71. Onsager, Lars : U.S. Professor who became a Nobel laureate of 1968 for Chemistry; the discovery of “the reciprocal relations bearing his name which are fundamental for the thermo-dynamics of irreversible processes”.

72. Paracelsus ( 1493 -1541 A.D.) : Swiss mystic and chemist; he was the first to employ Laudanum and Antimony in Pharmacy.

73. Pasteur, Louis ( 1822 – 1895 A.D. ) : French chemist discovered the causes of fermentation in alcohol and milk and founded the Pasteur Institute in 1888.

74. Pauling, Linus ( 1901 – 1994 A.D. ) : American bio – chemist applied the quantum theory to chemistry received Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1954 for his contribution to the electrochemical theory of valency.

75. Porter, Dr. Rodney Robert : Biochemist known for his discoveries relating to the chemical structure of antibodies.

76. Prelog, Vladimir : Yugoslavian stereo – chemistry – researcher of organic molecules and reactions. He received ( 1975 ) Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

77. Priestley, Joseph ( 1733 – 1804 A.D. ) : British Chemist; discovered oxygen and methods of collecting gases.

78. Rao, Prof. U.Ramachandra : Is the Director of Indian Scientific Satellite Project ( KSP ) at Peenya near Bangalore.

79. Rainwater, James : U.S.A. ( 1975 ) Nobel Prize winner in Physics for the development of the theory that atomic nucleus is not always spherical but can also be egg – shaped which has no immediate practical meaning but is extremely essential to scientists.

80. Richards, T.W. :  He worked for the accurate determination of atomic weights and was awarded Nobel Prize in 1916.

81. Roger Bacon ( 1214 – 1294 A.D. ) :  Inventor of Gun Powder and founder of experimental science.

82. Rontgen, W.Konrad ( 1845 – 1923 A.D. ) : German physicist, discovered X – rays or Rontgen rays for which he was awarded the – first Nobel Prize for Physics in 1901.

83. Ross, Ronald ( 1857 – 1932 A.D. ) : British physician discovered the vector of Malaria; awarded Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1902.

84. Rutherford, Daniel ( 1749 – 1819 A.D. ) : Scottish scientist discovered nitrogen.

85. Rutherford, Lord ( 1871 – 1937 A.D. ) : Won the Nobel Prize for his work on Structure of Atom and Radio – activity.

86. Ryle, Sir Martin ( 1918 – 1984 A.D. ) : U.K. ( 1974 ) Nobel Prize winner in Physics for the development of “aperture synthesis” technique designed to identify stellar objects through radio signals.

87. Sarabhai, Dr. Vikram A. : Former Chairman of India’s Atomic Energy Commission and the Indian Space Research Organization ( ISRO ) died on 30th December, 1971. Dr. Sarabhai was an eminent physicist mainly interested in the astro – physical implications of Cosmic Ray Time Variations.

88. Sanger, Dr. Frederick ( b.1918 ) : First Scientist to receive two Nobel Prizes for Chemistry in 1958 ( structure of the insulin molecule ) and in 1980 ( molecular structures for nucleic acids ).

89. Sen, RK. ( Dr. ) :  is the Indian surgeon who performed Asia’s first heart transplant operation in Mumbai.

90. Simpson, Sir James Young ( 1811 – 1870 A.D. ) : British physicist to introduce chloroform as an anaesthetic in 1847.

91. Soddy, Frederick ( 1877 – 1956 A.DV ) : British radio chemist pioneer to research in the atomic disintegration, discovered “isotopes”; for which he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1921.

92. Solvay, Earnest ( 1838 f 1922 A.D. ) : Belgian chemist devised a process for manufacture of sodium carbonate.

93. Sutherland, Dr. Earl W. : Recipient of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, in 1971, credited with the discovery, “that the hormones in the human body produce another substance known as ‘cyclic A.M.R can influence its disease – resisting capacity in the body”.

94. Teller, Edward ( Dr. ) : U. S. nuclear scientist developed the hydrogen bomb.

95.  Thomson, Sir J.J. ( 1856 – 1940 A.D. ) : British physicist discovered the electron which inaugurated the electrical theory of the atom. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906.

96. Tsiolkovsky, K.E. ( 1857 – 1935 A.D. ) : Russian pioneer who lip developed the basic theory of rocketry.

97. Verne, Jules ( 1828 – 1905 A. D. ) : French science – fiction writer; author of the book “From the Earth to the Moon”. The book carried a more or less accurate prediction of the launching and flight of Apollo – 8.

98. Volta, A. ( 1745 – 1827 A . D . ) : Italian physicist and pioneer of electrical science; invented voltaic cell, the electrophorus and electroscope.

99. Voronoff, S. : Russian scientist known for grafting healthy animal glands, into the human body.

100. Watson and Crick : Known for DNA double helix.

101. Watson – Watt, Sir Robert : British physicist. He developed radar.

102. Watt, James ( 1736 – 1819 A.D. ) : Scottish engineer who invented steam engine.

103. Yukawa, Dr. H. ( born 1907 ) : Predicted a new particle meson which holds the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus; first Japanese to win the Nobel Prize in Physics ( 1949 ).


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