|AIPMT 2016 Question Papers Book + Question Bank CD -|
AIPMT Exam 2016 Biology Syllabus
AIPMT 2016 Biology Contents for Class XI
Unit I : Diversity in Living World
- What is living?; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy and Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
- Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
- Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms ( three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category ); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples.
- Salient features and classification of animals – nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level ( three to five salient features and at least two examples ).
Unit II : Structural Organization in Animals and Plants
- Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants : Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence – cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed ( To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus ).
- Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems ( digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive ) of an insect ( cockroach ). ( Brief account only )
Unit III : Cell Structure and Function
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles – structure and function; Endomembrane system – endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles ( ultra structure and function ); Nucleus – nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
- Chemical constituents of living cells : Biomolecules – structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes – types, properties, enzyme action.
- B Cell division : Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
Unit IV : Plant Physiology
- Transport in plants : Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport – Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration – Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases ( brief mention ).
- Mineral nutrition : Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism – Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
- Photosynthesis : Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis ( Elementary idea ); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
- Respiration : Exchange gases; Cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation ( anaerobic ), TCA cycle and electron transport system ( aerobic ); Energy relations – Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
- Plant growth and development : Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
Unit IV : Human Physiology
- Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
- Breathing and Respiration : Respiratory organs in animals ( recall only ); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration – Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
- Body fluids and circulation : Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system – Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
- Excretory products and their elimination : Modes of excretion – Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system – structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function – Renin – angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
- Locomotion and Movement : Types of movement – ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle – contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions ( To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus ); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system – Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
- Neural control and coordination : Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humanscentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
- Chemical coordination and regulation : Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system – Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action ( Elementary Idea ); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders ( Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease ).
- Important : Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.
AIPMT 2016 Biology Contents for Class XII
Unit I : Reproduction
- Reproduction in organisms : Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes – Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants : Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination – types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen – Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events – Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes – apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
- Human Reproduction : Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis – spermatogenes and oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation ( Elementary idea ); Parturition ( Elementary idea ); Lactation ( Elementary idea ).
- Reproductive health : Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases ( STD ); Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy ( MTP ); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT ( Elementary idea for general awareness ).
Unit II : Genetics and Evolution
- Herdity and variation : Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism – Incomplete dominance, Co – dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance – Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
- Molecular basis of Inheritance : Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation – Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
- Evolution : Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence; Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution – Variation ( Mutation and Recombination ) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
Unit III : Biology and Human Welfare
- Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases ( Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm ); Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
- Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
- Microbes in human welfare : In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
Unit IV : Biotechnology and its Applications
- Principles and process of Biotechnology : Genetic engineering ( Recombinant DNA technology ).
- Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture : Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues – Biopiracy and patents.
Unit V : Ecology and environment
- Organisms and environment : Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
- Ecosystem : Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling ( carbon and phosphorous ); Ecological succession; Ecological Services – Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
- Biodiversity and its conservation : Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
- Environmental issues : Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.