# AMUPMDC Asso CET Physics Syllabus

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**AMUPMDC 2020 Physics Syllabus**

**Contents Class XI Syllabus**

**Unit I : Physical World and Measurement**

**Physics :**Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

**Need for measurement :**Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

- Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

**Unit II : Kinematics**

- Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position – time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non – uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity – time and position – time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion ( graphical treatment ).

- Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities : Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.

- Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components.

- Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration – projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

**Unit III : Laws of Motion**

- Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

- Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

- Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion ( vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road ).

**Unit IV : Work, Energy and Power**

- Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work – energy theorem, power.

- Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy ( kinetic and potential energies ); non – conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

**Unit V : Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body**

- Centre of mass of a two – particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.

- Moment of a force, – torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.

- Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.l. for simple geometrical objects ( no derivation ). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

**Unit VI : Gravitation**

- Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.

- Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.

**Unit VII : Properties of Bulk Matter**

- Elastic behavior, Stress – strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.

- Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

- Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

- Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity : Cp, Cv – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.

- Heat transfer – conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.

- Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.

**Unit VIII : Thermodynamics**

- Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature ( zeroth law of Thermodynamics ). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

- Second law of the thermodynamics : Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

**Unit IX : Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory**

- Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.

**Kinetic theory of gases :**Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy ( statement only ) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.

**Unit X : Oscillations and Waves**

- Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion( SHM ) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring – restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM – Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations ( qualitative ideas only ), resonance.

- Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.

**Contents Class XII Syllabus**

**Unit I : Electrostatics**

- Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

- Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

- Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell ( field inside and outside ).

- Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges : equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.

- Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.

**Unit II : Current Electricity**

- Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V – l characteristics ( liner and non – linear ), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.

- Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

- Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.

- Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.

- Potentiometer – principie and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

**Unit III : Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism**

- Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

- Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

- Force on a current – carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current – carrying conductors – definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

- Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole ( bar magnet ) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole ( bar magnet ) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

- Para – , dia – and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples.

- Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

**Unit IV : Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents**

- Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.

- Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations ( qualitative treatment only ), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.

- AC generator and transformer.

**Unit V : Electromagnetic Waves**

- Need for displacement current.

- Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics ( qualitative ideas only ). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

- Electromagnetic spectrum ( radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x – rays, gamma rays ) including elementary facts a bout their uses.

**Unit VI : Optics**

- Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens – maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

- Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

**Optical instruments :**Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects ( myopia and hypermetropia ) using lenses.

- Microscopes and astronomical telescopes ( reflecting and refracting ) and their magnifying powers.

**Wave optics :**Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.

- Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.

- Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.

- Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.

- Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

**Unit VII : Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation**

- Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light.

- Matter waves – wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson – Germer experiment ( experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained ).

**Unit VIII : Atoms and Nuclei**

- Alpha – particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.

- Radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass – energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

**Unit IX : Electronic Devices**

- Energy bands in solids ( qualitative ideas only ), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode – l – V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; l – V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier ( common emitter configuration ) and oscillator. Logic gates ( OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR ). Transistor as a switch.