Dr DY Patil Institute AICET Pune Biology Syllabus

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 Dr DY Patil Pune AICET Medical

Important : All India Common Entrance Test ( AICET – 2021 ) for the admission to MBBS or BDS courses of Dr DY Patil Vidyapeeth will be based on NEET UG 2021.

Dr D.Y Patil Institute AICET Pune 2021 Biology Syllabus

Unit I

Diversity of Living Organism

Introduction to Biology

Defination of Biology and its main branches, Botany and Zoology, scope of Biology, branches of Biology ( defmition ).Classical branches – morphology, cytology, histology, anatomy, physiology, developmental Biology, biosystematics, genetics, ecology, organic evolution and palaeontology.

Inter disciplinary branches – biophysics, biochemistry, and biostatistics. Applied branches and career prospects – agriculture, entomology, sylviculture, pathology, apiculture, microbiology, and bioinformetics. Role of Biology in myths and disbeliefs.

Biosystematics

What is life? biodiversity; need for classification; Three domains of life, concept of species:- three domains of life; taxonomy & systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy- museums, zorogical parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.

Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi ( mycota ) into major groups: Lichens.

Viruses and Viroid, prions

Chemical nature with one example of disease each-creutzfeldt – Jacob disease ( CZD ) and potato spindle tuber disease ( PSTD )

Kingdom Plantae : Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta ( metaphyta ), Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae ( three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category ); Angiosperms – classification up to class, characteristic features and examples.

Kingdom – Animalia : Salient features and classification of animals non chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to classes level ( three to five salient features and at least two examples ).

Unit II

Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Morphology of Plants

Morphology and modifications; tissues; anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence; cymose and racemose, flower ( homochlamydeous, heterochlamydeous ) fruit and seed ( to be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus ).

Study of Animal tissues

Animal tissues ( epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular ) Study of Animal Type Example

Cockroach

morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems ( digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive ) of an insect ( cockroach ), ( a brief account only )

Unit III

Cell Biology

Organisation of cell

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles ( ultrastructure and function ); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Biochemistry of cell : Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.

Cell Reproduction : cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

Unit IV

Plant Physiology

Plant water relation & mineral nutrition

Transport in plants; movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis; diffusion of gases. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Photosynthesis

Bioenergetics – introduction, light as the source of energy and ATP as energy currency, photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis – chloroplst pigments involved in photosynthesis ( elementary idea ); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Respiration

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation ( anaerobic ), TCA cycle and electron transport system ( aerobic ); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratroy quotient, Pasteur effect.

Plant growth and development

seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.

Unit V

Human Physiology

Human Nutrition

Digestion and absorption

alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.

Human Respiration

Breathing and Respiration : Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Circulation

Body fluids and circulation : composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Excretion & Osmoregulation

Excretory products and their elimination : Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.

Human skeleton & Locomotion : Locomotion and movement : types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle – contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

Control & Co – ordination

Neural control and coordination : Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and function of eye and ear. A brief study of epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’

Chemical coordination and regulation: endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action ( elementary Idea ); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goit, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addision’s disease.

Unit VI

Continuity of life

Reproduction in plants :- Reproduction in organisms: reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; asexual reproduction modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction; modes – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants. Sexual reproduction in flowering plant: flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Early development of frog-structure of egg, cleavage, blastulation, gastrulation, derivatives of primary germ layers.

Human Reproduction

male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea). Reproductive health: need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); birth control – need and nethods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit VII

Genetics and Evolution

Genetic basis of inheritance

Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism -incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance.

Chromosomal basis of inheritance

chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes, Turner’s syndrome,Cri-du-Chat syndrome.gene disorders-sickle cell anemia, haemophilia.

Gene – Its nature, expression & regulation

Molecular basis of inheritance: search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – Lac Operon; Genome and human geneome project; DNA fingerpeinting.

Unit VIII

Evolution

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution ( paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence ); Darwin’s contribution, modem synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit IX

Biology and Human Welfare

Man in health and diseases – concept of Homeostasis-the central dogma in physiology – definition meanging of internal environment. Factors to be kept constant to achieve homeostasis, Example to illustrate homeostasis.

Human Health and diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases ( malaria, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm ); Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescene, drug and alcholol abuse. Improvement in food production : Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry.

Microbes in human welfare : In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

Animal Husbandry : Management of farms and farm animals ( dairy, poultry, animal breeding, bee keeping, fisheries, sericulture, lac culture.

Vermiculture Definition and procedure, vermicomposed – degradation of organic waste and role of earthworm in soil fertility.

Unit X

Biotechnology and its applications

Process & application

principles and process o biotechnology : genetic engineering ( recombinant DNA technology). transposons, plasmids, bacteriophages, production of restriction fragments, preparing and cloning DNA library, gene amplification.

Application of biotechnology : in health and agriculture : human insulin and vaccine production, gene theraphy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issuesbiopiracy and patents.

Enhancement in food production : Plant breeding, tissue culture, concept of cellular totipotency, requirement of tissue culture, calls culture, suspension culture, single cell protein, biofortification.

Unit XI

Ecology and Environment

Habitat and niche

Organisms and environment : Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Ecosystems

patterns & energy flow, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

Biodiversity and its conservation

concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries. Benfits of biodiversity – economic – traditional crop varieties, animals of food value, medicinal plants harvested form wild habitats. Ecological / social for controlling soil – water regimes and hydrology, for efficient organic residue management and soil fertility management, ethical cultural, spiritual and religious belief system centered around the concept of sarced species, sacred groves and sacred landscapes.

Biodiversity depletion – anthropocentric causes – urbanization, expansion of griculture, deforestation, pollution, acidification of soil and water, Mining activities, desertification and loss of soil fertility. Intellectual property rights – patenting life forms.

Environmental issues

Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and global warning; ozone depletion; deforestation; any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

Economic Botany

Introduction, oil yielding plants, groundnut and sunflower, cereals and millets, rice and jowar, pulses, pigeon pea, and Bengal gram, medicinal plants – Adathoda vasica, Ephedra gerardiana, dryopteris, santalum album, gymnema sylvestre, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllantus emblica, Spices – pepper, cloves and cardamom.

Elements of Plant Pathology

Symptoms, etiology, type and nature of pathogens and methods of control with reference to the following diseases :- banana bunchy top, tikka disease of groundnut, crown gall ( of any common dicot plant )

 Dr DY Patil Pune AICET Medical