**Important** : All India Common Entrance Test ( AICET – 2021 ) for the admission to MBBS or BDS courses of Dr DY Patil Vidyapeeth will be based on NEET UG 2021.

**Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute AICET Pune 2021 Physics Syllabus**

**Unit I**

**Physical World and Measurement
**

**Measurement
**

Physics – scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; physics, technology and society. Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. Order of magnitude, accuracy and errors in measurement Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

**Unit II**

**kinematics
**

Scalars & Vectors Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and their notations; equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors.

Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Scalar and Vector product of vectors.

**Motion in straight lines**

Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line : Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion Uniform and nonuniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time and position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion ( graphical treatment ). Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration. Projectile motion. Equation of projectile path, time of flight, horizontal range, maximum height of projectile. Relative velocity.

**Unit III**

**Laws of Motion
**

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of liner momentum and its applications.

**Force
**

Types of forces. General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces. Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, laws of conservation of angular momentum and is applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces Centre of mass of a two – particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod.

**Concurrent Co-planner forces
**

Definition of resultant & equilibrate – statement of law of parallelogram of forces – derivation of expression for magnitude & direction of two concurrent coplanar forces – law of triangle of forces & its converse – Lami’s theorem – problems.

**Uniform circular motion
**

angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration, relation between angular velocity and liner velocity. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: radial acceleration, Centripetal force, exmples of circula motion ( vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road ).

Vertical circular motion due to earths gravitation, equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. Kinematical equation for circlar motion in analogy with linear motion.

**Unit IV**

**Work, Energy and Power
**

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy ( kinetic and potential energies ); non ¬ conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions coefficient of restitution – problems.

**Unit V**

**Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
**

**Motion of rigid body
**

Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions. Moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Kinetic energy of rotating body rolling motion, physical significance of moment of inertia, Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects ( no derivation ). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Angular momentum and its conservation.

**Unit VI**

**Gravitation
**

Statement and explanation of law of gravitation, definition of G, dervation of relation between g & G. Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal saw of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude, latitude, depth. Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potentioal. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites launching of satellite, expression for period of orbiting satellite.

Brief explanation of inertial mass and gravitational mass, weightlessness condition in orbit.

**Unit VII**

**Properties of Bulk Matter
**

**Elasticity**

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of rigidity, Relation between elastics constants, Poisson’s ratio; elastic energy. Determination of Y, behavior of metal wire under increasing load, applications of elastic behaviour of material.

**Friction in soild
**

Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

**Frictions in liquid
**

Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications ( hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes ). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure

Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow, critical velocity. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications

**Surface tension
**

Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure across a curved surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Effect of impurity, temperature and detergent on surface tension, capillary action in wick of lamp.

**Unit VIII**

**Heat
**

Gas Laws Statement and explanation of Boyle’s Law and Charle’s Law, Defination of pressure and volume coefficient of gas, absolute zero, Kelvin scale of temperature, perfect gas equation, explanation of isothermal and adiabatic changes, Van- der-Waal’s equation of state for real gases.

**Mode of Heat Transfer
**

Heat, temperature, Thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion of water; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat capacity. Heat transfer – conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity.

**Radiation
**

Newton’s law of cooling, Defination of Radiant energy, emissivity and absorptivity, perfect black body, statement and explanation of Kirchhoff’s law, Qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein’s displacement Law, Stefan’s law, Plank’s law, qualitative explanation of solar constant and surface temperature of sun, principles and working of total radiation pyrometer, Green house effect.

**Unit IX**

**Thermodynamics
**

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature ( zeroth law of thermodynamics ). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

Second law of thermodynamics : reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engine and refrigerator.

**Unit X**

**Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases**

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic interpretation of temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.

**Unit XI**

**Oscillations and Waves
**

**Oscillations
**

Periodic motion – time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion ( S.H.M ) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum- derivation of expression for its time period.

**Sound Wave**

Properties of sound, speed of sound in gas, Newton’s formula for speed of sound, Laplace formula, effect of pressure, temperature, humidity and wind on speed of sound.

Defination of sound intensity, explanation of loudness and its unit, distinguish between noise and musical note, comparison of Doppler effect in sound and light.

**Wave Motion
**

Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion relation between speed, velocity and frequency of a progressive wave. Definition of progressive wave & its characteristics, Derivation of equation of a progressive wave & its different forms, definition of wave intensity , mention expression for wave intensity & its unit, Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Beats, Doppler effect.

**Standing wave
**

standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, effect. Free, forced and damped oscillations ( qualitative ideas only ), resonance.

**Unit XII**

**Electrostatics
**

Electric Charges Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

**Electrostatic field
**

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Mechanical force on unit area of the charge conductor, energy density of the medium. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell ( field inside and outside ). Charged cylinder. Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

**Capacitors
**

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graff generator.

**Unit XIII**

**Current Electricity
**

**Electric Current
**

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics ( linear and non-linear ), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Elementary idea of secondary cells, concept of super conductivity – explanation of critical temperature , critical field & high temperature superconductors – mention of uses of super conductors – thermistors & mention of their uses. Definition of emf & internal resistance of a cell – ohm’s law applied to a circuit – problems.

**Kirchhoffs laws : **KirchhofPs laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

**Unit XIV**

**Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
**

**Concept of magnetic field
**

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.at hthe centre Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point on the axis of a solenoid, basic concept of terrestrial magnetism, statement & explanation of tangent law, construction & theory of tangent galvonameter, Fleming’s left hand rule.

**Ampere’s law
**

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors- definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

**Magnetism
**

Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, definition of magnetic dipole moment, and its unit, torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic field, Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole ( bar magnet ) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole ( bar magnet ) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

**Types of magnetic material
**

Para -, dia – and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Ferromagentism on the basis of domain theory, curie temperature Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

**Unit XV**

**Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
**

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current / voltage, Expression for energy stored in the coil, derivation for sinusoidal emf, reactance and impedance; LC oscillations ( qualitative treatment only ), LCR series circuit, Expression for impendance & current in LCR series circuit by phasor diagram method , explanation of resonance, derivation for resonant frequency, brief account of sharpness of resonance & Q- factor, power in AC circuits with resistance, inductance and capacitance, power factor & wattless current. Qualitative description of choke, basic ideas of magnetic hysteresis AC generator and construction & working of transformer, power losses in transformer, Principle & working of moving iron meter, explanation of transmission of electric power, advantages of AC & DC.

**Unit XVI**

**Electromagnetic waves
**

Need for displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics ( qualitative ideas only ). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum ( radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays ) including elementary facts about their uses. Space communication, types of propogation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

**Unit XVII**

**Optics
**

**Refraction at plane surface
**

Refraction through a glass slab, expression for lateral shift and normal shift, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, its application in communication.

**Refraction through prism**

Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Prism formula, Deviation through thin prism, angular dispersion, and dispersive power, conditions for dispersion without deviation.

**Refraction at spherical surface
**

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, len’s maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror. Scattering of light – blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.

**Optical instruments **

Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects ( myopia, hypermetropia ) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) , compound microscope and their magnifying powers, reflecting telescope.

**Wave optics :** Brief explanation of Newton’s corpuscular theory, Huygen’s wave of theory and Maxwell electromagnetic theory, Wave front, wave normal and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle.

**Interference
**

Theory of Interference, conditions for constructive and destructive interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.

**Diffraction
**

Distinguish between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, Rayleigh’s criteria. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescope.

**Polarisation
**

Polarisation, plane polarised light, explanation of plane of polarization and lane of vibration, Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

**Speed of Light**

Michelson’s rotating mirror experiment to determine light importance of speed of light.

**Unit XVIII**

**Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
**

Introduction of Atomic physics Types of electron emission, description and theory of Dunnington’s method of finding, e/m of an electron, explanation of types of spectra, emission and absorption spectra, brief account of Fraunhoffer lines, explanation of electromagnetic spectra with emphasis on frequency.

**Photoelectric effect
**

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light, photoelectric cell and its application.

**deBroglie’s hypothesis
**

Matter waves – wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson – Germer experiment ( experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained ). Wave length of electron, principle of electron microscope, scanning of electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope.

**Unit XIX**

**Atoms & Nuclei
**

**Bohr’s atom model
**

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom Bohr atomic model for hydrogen atom, Bhor’s Postulates- expression for radius velocity, energy wave number, spectral series of hydrogen, energy level diagram, explanation of ionization & excitation of energy, limitation of Bhor’s theory, explanation of Sommerfeld & vector atom models.

**Lasers
**

Interaction between energy levels & electromagnetic radiation, laser action, population inversion, optical pumping, properties of lasers, construction & working of Ruby laser, application of laser, brief account of photonics.

**Nuclear Physics
**

Characteristics of nucleus, Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones, qualitative explanation of liquid drop and nuclear magnetic resonance and its application in medical diagnostics as MRI nuclear forces and their characteristics, Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; Nuclear fission with equation, Nuclear chain reaction .critical mass, controlled & uncontrolled chain reactions, types of nuclear reactor , mention their principles, dispose of nuclear waste nuclear fusion, stellar energy ( carbon & proton cycle )

**Radioactivity
**

Laws of radioactivity, decay law, explanation of decay constant, half life period ,mean life, relation between half & mean life, unit of activity ,Bequerrel & Curie – artificial transmutation, artificial radioactivity, radio isotopes & mention their uses, brief account of Biological effects of radiation & safety measures.

**Elementary Particles
**

basic concepts of decay , neutrino hypothesis, beta leptons & hadrons, Qualitative explanation of it, Quarks.

**Unit XX**

**Electronic Devices
**

Energy bands in solids ( Qualitative ideas only ) conductor, insulator and semiconductor; semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I- V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor, transistor as an amplifier ( common emitter configuration ) and oscillator. Logic gates ( OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR ). Transistor as a switch.

**Unit XXI**

**Communication Systems
**

Elements of a communication system ( block diagram only ); bandwidth of signals ( speech, TV and digital data ); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude – modulated wave.

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