Terminology Index of C Terms

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List of Terminology Index – C

Cabinet : A body of advisers or ministers of a sovereign or other heads of State each of whom holds one or more important portfolios in a government.

Camouflage : Concealing of objects by various means to deceive the enemy about their location and thereby protecting there from air and land attacks.

Capital Gain : It refers to the increase in the value of the fixed capital assets. It occurs when the sale of the fixed assets fetches more than the amount spent on their purchase.

Capital Punishments : A punishment by death; methods of execution include electrocution, lethal gas, hanging, shooting, lethal injection, garroting and decapitation. A large number of countries have abolished the death penalty for all offenses and a few still retain it.

Capitalism : A system under which private entrepreneurs have complete freedom to devise and control production and distribution for their own profits, competition being the only limiting factor.

Cash Crops : Crops which are considered easily marketable. These are mostly non – food crops and include tea, coffee, cotton, jute, oil seeds, tobacco, rubber, etc.

Cash Ratio : It refers to the ratio of aggregate bank holdings of cash against its aggregate liabilities above a particular time.

Casting Vote : A deciding vote cash by a presiding officer in case of a tie.

Caucus : A closed meeting of a group of persons belonging to the same political party of faction usually to elect candidates or to decade on policy.

Ceiling : Prescribed upper limit for possessions – land, income, etc.

Census : An official enumeration of the population of a country and statistics under various classifications. The last census in India was held in February – March 2001.

Central Bank : The apex bank which controls, supervises and guides the functioning of commercial banks in the country. It controls money supply in the economy and has a monopoly of note issue and is also a banker to the Government. In India the Reserve Bank of India is the Central Bank of the country.

Central Processing Unit (CPU) : The unit of hardware in a computer system in which all instruction and data processing occur.

Certiorari : It is a writ which order the removal of a suit from an inferior court to a superior court. It may be used before a trial takes place to prevent an excess or abuse of jurisdiction and to remove the case for trial to a higher court. It is invoked also after trial to quash an order which has been made without jurisdiction or in defiance of the rules of natural justice.

Chauvinism : Exaggerated or aggressive patriotism; excessive or prejudiced support or loyalty for one’s cause or group or sex. An oft – used expression is male chauvinism.

Chips : Miniaturized integrated circuits.

Civil Disobedience : Breaking Civil Laws peacefully (non – violently), first preached by Gandhiji (also called non – cooperation) in 1921.

Clearing House : Meeting place for banks for setting mutual claims and accounts.

Closed Economy : Economy which does not have any external economic relationship. It does not export anything nor does it import. Such an economy is largely self – sufficient and hence indulges in no foreign trade.

Coalition : A combination or association of two patterns with the purpose of forming a composite government. In times of war, a coalition of the party in power and the opposition is formed to forge unity of action.

COBOL : A high – level commercial programming language, which stands for Common Business – Oriented Language.

Code : Common rules and laws (e.g. Indian Penal Code), prevalent morality (code of conduct).

Coding Sheet : A marked paper sheet that helps the programmer writing programming code, it describes an overall instruction format used for writing instruction / statement in Assembly, BASIC, FORTRAN and COBOL languages.

Co – existence : Amicable relations between nations or parties for the maintenance of peace.

Cold War : A conflict, short of actual use of overt military action, hostile preparation, short of physical confrontation.

Collective Security : The doctrine that all nations should collectively ensure safety of an individual nation; the security alliance like NATO, and now defunct SEATO, CENTO and WARSAW PACT are described as such alliances.

Collectivism : A political or economic theory advocating collective or State ownership especially over production and distribution; a creed of Socialism.

Colonialism : It is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other peoples or territories.

Colony : A territory permanently settled by people from another land.

Compilation : Process by which program is compiled.

Compiler : A program which translates a source program written in a high – level language into a low – level language. Compile, because more than one machine instructions can be generated from a single source Compare with assembler, which translates a one – to – one source to object instruction.

Communism : The theory, as expounded by Marx and Engels, aims at the creation of a society in which the private ownership of lands, etc., is abolished and everyone receives what he needs and works according to his capacity.

Communists believe that revolution and the use of force are justified to bring about such a society. Two fundamental principles of communism are: peaceful co – existence between countries of different social systems and class struggle between the oppressed and the oppressors.

Condominium : Joint rule over a country by two or more other States. The Sudan was jointly administrated by Britain and Egypt from 1899 to 1955.

Confederation : Alliance of countries for specific purposes but the states continue to retain their individual independence.

Constituency : An electoral district and its entire voting population.

Constituent Assembly : A body of senior statesmen elected to frame a constitution for a country.

Constitution : Fundamental laws and rules of the country under which the government functions and which prescribe the rights and duties of its subjects.

Consumer Protection : Laws and means designed to ensure fair trading for buyers.

Contempt of Court : The behaviour that shows contempt for the authority of a court, such as disobeying a court order, breach of an injunction or improper use of legal documents. It is a behaviour that disrupts, prejudices or interferes with court proceedings either inside or outside the courtroom. The court may punish contempt with a fine or imprisonment.

Contraband : Goods whose import, export or possession is forbidden by law; smuggled goods.

Contract of Employment : The legal basis of an agreement between an employer and an employee.

Consul : An official accredited by a state to protect the commercial interests of here nationals in a foreign country.

Convertibility of Currency : It implies freely permitting the conversion of currency of one country to another.

Co – operative Farming : Joint farming by a number of farmers pooling their land and capital resources and sharing the crop in that proportion but retaining ownership rights and the right to withdraw.

Copyright : It is a law applying to literary, musical and artistic works (including plays, recordings, films, photographs, radio and television broadcasts, etc.), which prevents the reproduction of the work, in whole or in part, without the author’s consent.

Core Sector : Refers to some selected industries. It was in 1970 that the government had made certain changes in its industrial licensing policy and three sectors, namely, core sector, joint sector and middle sector, were created. Important industries like shipbuilding’s, oil exploration, tractors, heavy industrial machinery, etc, were assigned to the core sector.

Corporal Punishment : A physical punishment for wrongdoers, for example, by whipping. It is still used as a punishments for criminals in many countries, especially under the Islamic law.

Corridor : A strip of the territory of one State running through that of another, usually to give access to the sea.

Cosmonaut : A person engaged in or trained for space flights. This term was coined in Russia.

Cost of Living (Index) : A figure showing the prevailing cost of living, as compared with a base year taken as 100. This is arrived at by a complicated statistical process and worked out month by month, taking each month’s prevailing price for all the essential items needed for normal living.

Coup d’etat : Sudden change of government, generally by violent means.

Court Martial : A court converted of the trial of persons subject to military discipline who are accused of violations of military laws.

Credit, Letter of : A letter from a bank, firm or from one person to another, authorizing payment of a specified sum to third person for which the sender assumes responsibility.

Crossed Cheque : A cheque crossed with two parallel lines and “& Co” written in between them. This is done as a safety measure. The cheque is not to be paid on the counter. The amount is normally to be credited to the payee in his own account.

Curfew : Regulation enjoining withdrawal of persons from the streets or the closing of establishments or places of assembly at a stated hour for a specified duration.

Current Accounts : Bank account from which withdrawals are allowed without any restriction on frequency or amount, so long as there is a credit balance.

Customs Duty : Tax on goods imported into and exported from a country.

Cryogenics : Science dealing with very low temperature and the study of their physical and technological consequences.