Terminology Index of D Terms

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List of Terminology Index – D

Dactylography : Study of finger prints for the purpose of identification.

Database : A collection of data constructed to facilitate the updating once only of the data components, and the access and retrieval of individual items. A database is usually designed in such a way as not to restrict its use to a single application.

Data Flow : A computer assisted method for the recording and analyzing of existing or hypothetical systems.

Death Duty (also called Estate Duty) : Tax payable on property, after the death of the owner, by his heirs.

Death Rate : The number of deaths per 1000 people in a population per year.

Debenture : Bond issued by an organization undertaking to repay the amount with a specified interest after a specified period. Debenture holders are only creditors and not shareholders and debentures are the first charge on the organization.

Decree : Decision of the judgment having the force of law.

Deed : Legal document with official seal, duly signed and witnessed and having permanent validity (for example, sale deed for immovable property, mortgage deed, etc).

Deflation : It is the fall in prices, increase in unemployment, etc., as a result of less circulation of currency in the market.

Democracy : A government of the people, by the people, for the people, where all citizens have equal political rights and voters elect representatives to administer the government.

Demonetisation : The Government act of depriving metallic coins or paper money of specified denomination or its status as money. This is resorted to unearth hidden wealth.

Depreciation : In accounting, this is a percentage 5 to 10 per cent reduced from the value of machinery of fixed assets for wear and tear every year. In economics, depreciation is fall in money value indicating inflationary conditions and high prices of commodities.

Detente : End of strained relation between two countries.

Detenu : A person taken into custody.

Detonator : A device or substance used to fire a charge of explosive. A fulminate of mercury mixed with potassium chlorate of fulminate of silver are the detonating substances.

Devaluation : It is deliberate reduction in the value of home currency in relation to foreign currency.

Developing Countries : It is a collective term for those countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America which are undergoing the complex processes of modernization, industrialization and urbanization. These nations are included in the Group of 77, whose strength has now risen to 130.

Dharna : A form of protest by an aggrieved person or group occupying a place at or very near the place of the person or institution against whom the dharma is conducted and not moving until the grievance, fancied or real, is redressed.

Dictatorship : One – man rule with no controlling factor to call him to account (for example, Hitler, Stalin); one person vested with absolute authority.

Diminishing Returns : A law of economics which holds that beyond a point increasing input of labour and capital will not increase production in the same proportion but at a diminished rate.

Dialectical Materialism : A communist doctrine (attributed to Karl Marx) that progress involves three factors – thesis, antithesis, synthesis – represented by the discontent and revolt of the working classes (thesis) against the forces of capitalism (antithesis) and the resulting revolution and establishment of a communist regime (synthesis).

The dialectical method of Marx teaches us to understand the process of development in terms of transformation of quantitative into qualitative changes.

Diehard’s : People who have extreme conservative and reactionary views, obstructing progress.

Disk : A direct access storage device in which data is recorded on a number of concentric circular tracks on rotational magnetic medium (different from magnetic drum); the required disk and track are selected by electro – mechanical and electronic controls.

Fixed Disk : A disk store which is permanently on – lie.

Exchangeable Disk : A disk drive whose store (disk packs) can be removed and stored.

Off – line : A small, flexible disk (Floppy disk) used mainly for data capture.

Dividend : Share of the profits allotted to each share in a joint stock company.

Divorce : The legal dissolution of a lawful marriage. It is distinct from an annulment which is a legal declaration that the marriage was invalid.

Dossier : Set or bundle of documents relating to a particular person or happening.

Dumping : An economic measure to stifle competitions – selling below cost to get control of the market.

Dynamo : A generator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy; a forceful energetic person.

Dry Ice : Solid carbon dioxide.