Terminology Index of S Terms

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List of Terminology Index – S

Sabotage : Deliberate destruction of equipment by discontented employees or by enemy agents.

Sanction : An imposition corresponding to a penalty or award passed on defaulting nation. For example, the UN had passed certain sanctions against South Africa for its apartheid policy before 1994.

Schizophrenia : A mental disorder which can lead to profound changes in personality and behaviour, including paranoia and hallucinations. It is marked by withdrawn, bizarre and sometimes delusional behaviour and by intellectual and emotional deterioration.

Scrolling : Using the video as a text window to see the text. The scanning can be done either horizontally or vertically.

Secondary / Auxiliary Storage Device : A permanent storage device having a large capacity but slower access time than main memory. For example, hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic tape, etc.

Secondary Sector : It is the sector of the national economy which comprises manufacturing and processing industries.

Secular State : A state which treats all its citizens alike irrespective of their religious faith.

Security : A guarantee in the form of cash, bonds, property, etc., kept as pledge for repayment of debt or protection against financial loss.

Self – determination : The right of a national group or country to determine the question of its independent and form of its own government. Self – determination is in contrast to colonial rule.

Seller’s Market : A market where goods and services are scarce and the prices are relatively high.

Sick Industry : An industry which fails to generate internal surplus on a continuing basis.

Silicon : The material which provides the base for solid state microelectronic component. It is purified sand. It is the raw material for integrated circuits.

Simulation : Investigation of the behaviour of a system by establishing and running a model of it.

Sit – down Strike : A form of strike in which the workers report for duty but do not carry on with the work.

Socialism : A political and economic theory which advocates that all key industries, commerce and important national services like health and education should be under state control.

Soft Loan : It is a form of loan given either at a low rate of interest or without any interest. They are given to accelerate the pace of economic development of the development countries.

Speculation : It refers to the anticipation of prices involving buying and selling of goods over a given period of time. A speculator buys only with a view to sell at a later time when the prices rise or a part of it he may sell with a hope of buying the same at a later date.

Stagflation : A term used for describing a situation where inflationary rise in prices and stagnation in economic activity exist together.

Stalemate : Deadlock in a meeting or conference which hampers successful conclusion of the outcome.

Sterling Area : Nations which keep their exchange reserves in London in British sterling instead of gold. Such nations are generally members of the Commonwealth.

Subroutine : Also known as subprogram. It is a unit of program which is a program in its own right and can be complied, but cannot be executed without the main program.

Summit Conference : The meeting of heads of different states for a common purpose. The heads could be either Prime Ministers or Presidents, as the case may be.

Super Tax : A special tax levied over and above the normal income tax on an income exceeding a certain limit.

Surety : An undertaking given by a person who makes himself responsible for the good conduct of another for his appearance in a court, payment of a debt, etc,.