By the bacteria, mycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection in lungs where it produces a toxin called tuberculin that causes high fever.
BCG (bacillus – calmette – guerin) vaccine gives considerable protection against TB.
Mainly from 2 – 5 Years, but can also be in adults. By the bacteria, corynebacterium diphtheriae.
It grows in the membranes of respiratory tract and blocks the respiratory passage resulting in difficult breathing.
Can ultimately lead to death due to choking.
Babies should be immunized within first 6 weeks of their birth using DPT vaccine (Diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus).
Whooping Cough (or Pertussis)
By the bacteria, Bacillus Pertussis. It begins with mild fever and an irritating cough that gradually becomes paroxysmal (whooping).
The children can be immunized by the use of DPT vaccine.
Caused by the bacteria vibrio comma. It is transmitted through contaminated food and water.
Symptoms of disease are vomiting, acute diarrhoea and muscular cramps. Dehydration and loss of minerals are the other symptoms.
These are a group of intestinal infectious diseases including the food poisoning. All these have a common symptom of diarrhoea.
The pathogens responsible for these diseases are Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., Camylobactera and Salmonella.
Spreads through contaminated water, food, etc.
Leprosy (or Hansen’s disease)
Caused by a rod – shaped bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. It is a chronic infection of the skin and other tissues including nerves.
The symptoms include Ulcers, Nodules, Scaly Scabs, Deformities of Fingers and Toes and Wasting of Body Parts.
The infected part of the body become Senseless (Benumbed).
The disease spreads only after a long and close contact with the patient (one of the least infectious of all infectious diseases).
If symptoms occurs after more than one year of the entry of bacteria into the body.
By a motile bacteria, Clostridium Tetani, found in Soil, Dust, Water, etc.
The bacteria enter the body through injured surfaces.
It takes about one – two weeks for bacteria to show first symptoms.
The disease is characterized by painful contraction of muscles usually of the neck and jaws followed by the paralysis of thoracic muscles.
It is a disease of the C.N.S. (also called lock – jaw).
ATS (Anti – tetanus serum) is prescribed.
Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
It is inflammatory disease of lungs.
It is characterized by sudden chill, chest pain cough, rapid shallow breathing and high temperature.
In this the fluids collect in the alveoli and bronchioles due to which the lungs do not get sufficient air to support life.
Caused by Salmonella typhi which is found in the intestine of humans.
Typhoid spreads through food, milk and water contaminated with intestinal discharges either directly or through flies and personal hygiene.
Main symptoms are high fever, headache, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal disorder like ulceration of intestine, etc.
Plague is primarily a disease of rat.
It is caused by rod shaped bacterium Pasteurella/Yersinea pestis which is an endoparasite of gut of rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopsis.
Rat flea is an ectoparasite of rat. Its germs can also be transmitted from man by head louse and bed bug.
Plague is of 3 Types :
- Bubonic Plague : It is a blood disease in which bacteria multiply in the blood stream and localize in the lymph nodes, especially those of armpits, neck and groin. It is characterized by high fever, weakness, enlargement of lymph nodes, haemorrhages which turn black. The patient dies thereafter. Hence, plague is also called Black Death.
- Pneumonic Plague : Characterized by haemorrhage of bronchi and lungs. It spreads from human to human (without rat flea) through droplets and fomites.
- Septicemic Plague : Characterized by anemia, fever, chill, etc., leading to death within 2 days.
It is an acute infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis.
It is most common in agricultural regions where it occurs in animals.
It most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goat, camel and other herbivores), but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or tissues from infected animals.
Anthrax infection can occur in three forms: cutaneous, inhalation and gastrointestinal
By a bacteria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
It is transmitted through sexual contact (It is an infection of the mucous membrane of the urinogenital tract).
It may result in female sterility.
Also a sexual disease caused by a bacteria, Treponema Pilludum, transmitted throng sexual contacts.
Dental plaque is caused by bacteria Streptococcus mutans.
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