ITSAT Chemistry Syllabus

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ITSAT Chemistry Syllabus 2021 – Page 1

Transition Metals including Lanthanides : Electronic configuration: General characteristic properties, oxidation states of transition metals. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds-oxides, halides and sulphides. General properties of second and third row transition elements (Groupwise discussion). Preparation and reactions, properties and uses of Potassium dichromate and Potassium permanganate.

Inner Transition Elements : General discussion with special reference to oxidation states and lanthanide contraction. Coordination Chemistry and Organo Metallics: Coordination

compounds, Nomenclature : Isomerism in coordination compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds, Werner’s coordination theory. Applications of coordination compounds.

Nuclear Chemistry : Nature of radiations from radioactive substances. Nuclear reactions; Radioactive disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion: Isotopes and their applications: Radio carbon-dating.

Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds : Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography). Qualitative analysis, detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens. Quantitative analysis – estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus (basic principles only) Determination of molecular mass – Silver salt method, cholroplatinate salt method, Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula. Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure elucidation.

Some Basic Principles : Classification of Organic Compounds. Tetravalency of Carbon. Homologous series. Functional groups– –C = C –, – C C – and groups containing halogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. General introduction to naming organic compounds – Common names and IUPAC nomenclature of alphatic, aromatic and Cyclic Compounds. Illustration with examples of Compounds having not more than three same or different functional groups/atoms. Isomerism – Structural and stereoisomerism (geometrical and optical). Chirality – Isomerism in Compounds having one and two chiral Centres. Enantiomers, diastereoisomers, racemic forms, racemisation & resolution. Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and Heterolytic: free radicals carbocations and carbanions. Stability of Carbocations and free-radicals. Electrophiles and Nucleophiles. Electron displacement in a covalent bond – inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance. Common types of organic reactions – Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions. Illustrations with examples.

Hydrocarbons : Classification. Sources of hydrocarbons: Alkanes – General methods of preparation (from unsatmated hydrocarbons, alkylhalides, aldehydes, ketones and carburoxylic acids). Physical properties and reactions (Substitution, oxidation and miscellaneous). Conformations of alkanes(ethane, popane butane) and cyclohexane, sawhorse and Newman projections)– mechanism of halogaration of alkanes. Alkanes and Alkynes – General methods of preparation physical properties, Chemical reactions – Mechanism of electrophilic addition reactions in alkenes – Markowni Koff’s Rule, peroxide effect. Acidic character of alkynes. Polymerisation of alkenes. Aromatic hydrocarbons – Benzene and its homologues, Isomerism, Chemical reactions of bonzene. Structure of bonzene, resonance. Directive influence of substituents. Petroleum – HydroCarbons from Petroleum, Cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline – Octane number, gasoline additives.

Organic Compounds Containing Halogens : ( Haloalkanes and Haloarenes ), Methods of preparation, physical properties and reactions, Preparation, properties and uses of  Chloroform and Iodoform.

Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen : General methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses of Alchols, polyhydric alcohols, Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, Phenol, Benzaldehyde and Benzoic acid – their important methods of preparation and reactions. Acidity of carboxylic acids and phenol effect of substituents on the acidity of carboxylic acids.

Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen : ( Cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and amines ) Nomenclature and classification of amines, cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and their methods of preparation; correlation of their physical properties with structure, chemical reactions and uses – Basicity of amines. Synthetic and Natural Polymers: Classification of Polymers, natural and synthetic polymers (with stress on their general methods of preparation) and important uses of the following: Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon-66, Terylene, Bakelite.

Bio Molecules and Biological Processes : The Cell and Energy Cycle, Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides, Amino Acids and Peptides – Structure and classification. Proteins and Enzymes – Structure of Proteins, Role of enzymes. Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA, Biological functions of Nucleic Acids – Protein synthesis and replication, Lipids – Structure, membranes and their functions.

Chemistry in Action : Dyes, Chemicals in medicines ( antipyretic, analgesic, antibiotics & tranquilisers ), Rocket propellants. ( Structural formulae non-evaluative )

Environmental Chemistry : Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, Ozone and its reactions causing ozone layer depletion, effects of the depletion of ozone layer, industrial air pollution.

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