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BITSAT Chemistry Syllabus
Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons
- Classification : General Introduction, classification based on functional groups, trivial and IUPAC nomenclature. Methods of purification : qualitative and quantitative,
- Electronic displacement in a covalent bond : Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanion, nucleophile and electrophile; types of organic reactions, free redical halogenations.
- Alkanes and cycloalkanes : Structural isomerism and general properties and chemical reactions, free redical helogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. .
- Alkenes and alkynes : General methods of preparation and reactions, physical properties, electrophilic and free radical additions, acidic character of alkynes and (1,2 and 1,4) addition to dienes.
- Aromatic hydrocarbons : Sources; Properties; Isomerism; Resonance delocalization; polynuclear hydrocarbons; IUPAC nomenclature ; mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction, directive influence and effect of substituents on reactivity; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
- Haloalkanes and haloarenes : Physical properties, nomenclature, optical rotation, chemical reactions and mechanism of substitution reaction. Uses and environmental effects; di, tri, tetrachloromethanes, iodoform, freon and DDT.
- Introduction : Chiral molecules; Optical activity; Polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations; Fischer projections; Enantiomerism; Racemates; Diastereomerism and meso structures.
- Geometrical isomerism in alkenes
Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen
- General : Nomenclature, Electronic structure, important methods of preparation, identifications important reactions and physical properties of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides.
- Specific : Reactivity of α-hydrogen in carbonyl compounds, Effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives, mechanism of nucleophilic addition and dehydration, basic character of amines methods of preparation, and their separation, importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry.
Biological , Industrial and Environmental chemistry
- The Cell : Concept of cell and energy cycle.
- Carbohydrates : Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses; Anomeric carbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides: reducing and non-reducing sugars – sucrose, maltose and lactose; Polysaccharides: elementary idea of structures of starch, cellulose and glycogen.
- Proteins : Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple idea of secondary , tertiary and quarternary structures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes.
- Nucleic Acids : Types of nucleic acids; Primary building blocks of nucleic acids ( chemical composition of DNA & RNA ); Primary structure of DNA and its double helix; Replication; Transcription and protein synthesis; Genetic code.
- Vitamins : Classification, structure, functions in biosystems; Hormones
- Polymers : Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; methods of polymerization ( free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations ); Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers. Condensation polymers.
- Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food : Analgesics, Tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, anti-microbials, anti-fertility drugs, antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids; Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, antioxidants, soaps and detergents.
Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry
- Volumetric Analysis : Principles; Standard solutions of sodium carbonate and oxalic acid; Acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4, Na2SO3, Na2S2O3and H2S; Potassium permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate with KMnO4, K2 Cr2O7/Na2S2O3, Cu(II)/Na2S2O3.
- Qualitative analysis of Inorganic Salts: Principles in the determination of the cations Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and the anions CO32-, S-2, SO42-, NO2–, CO32-, NO32-, Cl–, Br–, I–, PO43-, CH3COO– C2O42-.
- Physical Chemistry Experiments: preparation and crystallization of alum, copper sulphate. Benzoic acid ferrous sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate; Temperature vs. solubility; Study of pH charges by common ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases; pH measurements of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solutions of known and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification. Equilibrium studies involving ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii) [Co(H2O)6] 2+ and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for strong acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite (iii) iodide vs. hydrogen peroxide, concentration and temperature effects in these reactions.
- Purification Methods : Filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography. Principles of melting point and boiling point determination; principles of paper chromatographic separation – Rf values.
- Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds : Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation.
- Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Basic principles for the quantitative estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen, sulphur and phosphorous; Molecular mass determination by silver salt and chloroplatinate salt methods; Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae.
- Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments: Preparation of iodoform, acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, di-benzyl acetone, aniline yellow, beta-naphthol; Preparation of acetylene and study of its acidic character.
- Basic Laboratory Technique : Cutting glass tube and glass rod, bending a glass tube, drawing out a glass jet, boring of cork.
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