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JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus
Section – A : Physical Chemistry
Unit 1 : Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry
Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
Unit 2 : States of Matter
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
1. Gaseous State : Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic theory of gases ( only postulates ); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation.
2. Liquid State : Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them ( qualitative treatment only ).
3. Solid State : Classification of solids : molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids ( elementary idea ); Bragg’s Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids ( fee, bcc and hcp lattices ), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical and magnetic properties.
Unit 3 : Atomic Structure
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model; Dual nature of matter, de – Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features. Concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of ? and ?2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers ( principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers ) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half – filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit 4 : Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding : Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding : Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion ( VSEPR ) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding : Valence bond theory – Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
Molecular Orbital Theory : Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals ( bonding, antibonding ), sigma and pi – bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
Unit 5 : Chemical Thermodynamics
Fundamentals of thermodynamics : System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics – Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics; Spontaneity of processes; ΔS of the universe and ΔG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Δo? ( Standard Gibbs energy change ) and equilibrium constant.
Unit 6 : Solutions
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage ( by volume and mass both ), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non – ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non – ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor and its significance.
Unit 7 : Equilibrium
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
- Equilibria involving physical processes : Solid – liquid, liquid – gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
- Equilibria involving chemical processes : Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants ( Kp and Kc ) and their significance, significance of ΔG and ΔGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.
- Ionic equilibrium : Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases ( Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis ) and their ionization, acid – base equilibria ( including multistage ionization ) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
Unit 8 : Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
- Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
- Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and their variation with concentration : Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
- Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.
Unit 9 : Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions : concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half – lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions – Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions ( no derivation ).
Unit – 10 : Surface Chemistry
- Adsorption – Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
- Catalysis – Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
- Colloidal State – distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids – lyophilic, lyophobic; multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids ( micelles ), preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
Section – B : JEE Main Inorganic Chemistry Syllabus
Unit 11 : Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
Unit 12 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Metals
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration, reduction ( chemical and electrolytic methods ) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
Unit 13 : Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit 14 : S – Block Elements ( Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals )
- Group – 1 and 2 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
- Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide and sodium htydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
Unit 15 : P – Block Elements
Group – 13 to Group 18 Elements :
General Introduction : Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.
Groupwise study of the p – block elements
Group – 13 : Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group – 14 : Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties and uses of Allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones.
Group – 15 : Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, ( PCl3, PCl5 ); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Group – 16 : Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid ( including its industrial preparation ); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group – 17 : Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group – 18 : Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
Unit 16 : D – and F – Block Elements
Transition Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements – physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2Cr2 O7 and KMnO4.
Inner Transition Elements :
Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
Unit 17 : Co – Ordination Compounds
Introduction to co – ordination compounds, Werner’s theory; ligands, co – ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding – Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of coordination compounds ( in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems ).
Unit 18 : Environmental Chemistry
- Environmental pollution – Atmospheric, water and soil.
- Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and Stratospheric
- Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants : Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain;
- Particulate pollutants : Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
- Stratospheric pollution – Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism and effects.
- Water Pollution – Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
- Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as : Pesticides ( insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides ), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution.
JEE Main Organic Chemistry Syllabus
Section – C
Unit 19 : Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds
- Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications.
- Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
- Quantitative analysis ( basic principles only ) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
Unit 20 : Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
- Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization ( s and p ); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups : and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism.
- Nomenclature ( Trivial and IUPAC )
- Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic : free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
- Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
- Common types of organic reactions – Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
Unit 21 : Hydrocarbons
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkanes – Conformations : Sawhorse and Newman projections ( of ethane ); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
- Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition : addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides ( Markownikoffs and peroxide effect ); Ozonolysis and polymerization.
- Alkynes – Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
- Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution : halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono – substituted benzene.
Unit 22 : Organic Compounds Containing Halogens
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C – X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions. Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform freons and DDT.
Unit 23 : Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
- Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers.
- Alcohols : Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
- Phenols : Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions : halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction.
- Ethers : Structure.
- Aldehyde and Ketones : Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=0 group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions ( addition of HCN, NH, and its derivatives ), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction ( Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen ); acidity of ? – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction;
- Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
- Carboxylic Acids – Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
Unit 24 : Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
- Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
- Diazonium Salts : Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit 25 : Polymers
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization – addition and condensation, copolymerization; Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
Unit 26 : Biomolecules
General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
- Carbohydrates – Classification : aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides ( glucose and fructose ) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides ( sucrose, lactose and maltose ).
- Proteins – Elementary Idea of α – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins : primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure ( qualitative idea only ), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
- Vitamins – Classification and functions.
- Nucleic Acids – Chemical constitution of DN A and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.
Unit 27 : Chemistry in Everyday Life
- Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins – their meaning and common examples.
- Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples.
- Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Unit 28 : Principles Related to Practical Chemistry
- Detection of extra elements ( N, S, halogens ) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups : hydroxyl ( alcoholic and phenolic ), carbonyl ( aldehyde and ketone ), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
- Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following : Inorganic compounds : Mohr’s salt, potash alum. Organic compounds : Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
- Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises – Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic – acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.
- Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis :
- Chemical principles involved in the following experiments
- Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4.
- Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.
- Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
- Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.
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