VSAT 2021 Biology Syllabus

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VSAT 2021 Biology Syllabus

UNIT-I : Diversity in the living world

The living world-What is living? Diversity in the living world; Taxonomic categories and taxonomical aids. Biological Classification – Five kingdom classification , Monera, Protista, Fungi, and Animalia, Three domains of life ( six kingdom classification ),Viruses, Viroids, Prions & Lichens.-Science of plants – Botany Origin, Development, Scope of Botany and Branches of Botany- Plant Kingdom – Salient features, classification and alternation of generations of the plants of the following groups Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.

UNIT – II : Structural organisation in plants- Morphology

Morphology of flowering Plants Vegetative; Parts of a typical Angiospermic plant; Vegetative morphology and modifications- Root, Stem and Leaf, types; Venation, Phyllotaxy.

Reproductive : Inflorescence – Racemose, Cymose and special types ( in brief ). Flower : Parts of a flower and their detailed description; Aestivation, Placentation. Fruits : Types- True, False and parthenocarpic fruits.

UNIT-III : Reproduction in Plants

Modes of Reproduction – Asexual reproduction, binary fission, Sporulation, budding, fragmentation, vegetative propagation in plants, Sexual reproduction in brief, Overview of angiosperm life cycle. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants .- Stamen, microsporangium, pollen grain. Pistil, megasporangium ( ovule ) and embryo sac; Development of male and female gametophytes. Pollination – Types, agents , Out breeding devices and Pollen, Pistil interaction. Double Fertilization; Post fertilisation events: Development of endosperm and embryo; development of seed, Structure of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous seeds, Significance of fruit and seed. Special modes, Apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony

UNIT-IV : Plant systematics

Taxonomy of angiosperms Introduction. Types of Systems of classification ( In brief ).Semi – Technical description of a typical flowering plant Description of Families: Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Liliaceae.

UNIT-V : Cell Structure and Function

Cell – The Unit of Life-Cell- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life – overview of the cell.Prokaryotic cells, Ultra Structure of Plant cell ( structure in detail and functions in brief ), Cell membrane, Cell wall, Cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Mitochondria, Plastids, Ribosomes, Golgi bodies, Vacuoles, Lysosomes, Microbodies, Centrosome and Centriole, Cilia, Flagella, Cytoskeleton and Nucleus.Chromosomes: Number, structural organization; Nucleosome. – Biomolecules Structure and function of Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleic acids.-Cell cycle and Cell Division. Cell cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis – significance.

UNIT-VI : Internal Organisation of Plants

Histology and Anatomy of Flowering Plants – Tissues – Types, structure and functions: Meristematic; Permanent tissues – Simple and Complex tissues.Tissue systems – Types, structure and function: Epidermal, Ground and Vascular tissue systems. Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous plants , Root, Stem and Leaf. Secondary growth in Dicot stem and Dicot root.

UNIT-VII : Plant Ecology

Ecological Adaptations, Succession and Ecological Services Introduction-Plant communities and Ecological adaptations: Hydrophytes, Mesophytes and Xerophytes- Plant succession. Ecological services – Carbon fixation, Oxygen release and-pollination ( in brief ).

UNIT-VIII : Plant Physiology

Transport in Plants-Means of Transport- Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, Passive symports and antiports, Active Transport, Comparison of Different Transport Processes, Plant-Water-Relations Water Potential, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition, Long Distance Transport of Water- Water Movement up a Plant, Root Pressure, Transpiration pull, Opening and Closing of Stomata, Transpiration and Photosynthesis, Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients- Uptake of Mineral Ions, Translocation of Mineral Ions, Mineral Requirements of Plants, Essential Mineral Elements-Criteria for Essentiality, Macronutrients, Micronutrients, Role of Macro- and Micronutrients, Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements, Toxicity of Micronutrients, Mechanism of Absorption of Elements, Translocation of Solutes, Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements, Metabolism of Nitrogen, NitrogenCycle, Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Symbiotic nitrogen fixation, Nodule Formation – Enzymes – Chemical Reactions, Enzymatic Conversions, Nature of Enzyme Action, Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity, Temperature and pH, Concentration of Substrate, Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes, Co-factors Photosynthesis in Higher Plants – Early Experiments, Site of Photosynthesis, Pigments Involved in Photosynthesis, Light Reaction, The Electron Transport-Splitting of Water, Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photo-phosphorylation, Chemiosmotic Hypothesis, Biosynthetic phase- The Primary Acceptor of CO2, The Calvin Cycle, The C4 Pathway, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis – Respiration of Plants – Cellular respiration, Glycolysis, Fermentation, Aerobic Respiration- Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, Electron Transport System ( ETS ) and Oxidative Phosphorylation, The Respiratory Balance Sheet, Amphibolic Pathway, Respiratory Quotient – Plant Growth and Development – Growth- Plant Growth, Phases of Growth, Growth Rates, Conditions for Growth, Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation, Development, Plant Growth Regulators- Physiological Effects of Plant Growth Regulators, Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Abscisic acid, Seed Dormancy, Photoperiodism, Vernalisation

UNIT IX : Microbiology

Bacteria – Morphology of Bacteria, Bacterial cell structure, Nutrition, Reproduction-Sexual Reproduction, Conjugation, Transformation, Transduction, The importance of Bacteria to Humans Viruses – Discovery, Classification of Viruses, structure of Viruses, Multiplication of Bacteriophages, The Lysogenic Cycle, Viral diseases in Plants, Viral diseases in Humans

UNIT X : Genetics

Principles of Inheritance and Variation – Mendel’s Experiments, Inheritance of one gene ( Monohybrid Cross )-Back cross and Test cross, Law of Dominance, Law of Segregation or Law of purity of gametes, Deviations from Mendelian concept of dominance, Incomplete Dominance, Co-dominance, Explanation of the concept of dominance, Inheritance of two genes- Law of Independent Assortment, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Linkage and Recombination, Mutations, Significance of mutations.

UNIT XI : Molecular Biology

Molecular Basis of inheritance – The DNA- Structure of Polynucleotide Chain, Packaging of DNA Helix, The Search for Genetic Material, Transforming Principle, Biochemical Characterisation of Transforming Principle, The Genetic Material is DNA, Properties of Genetic Material ( DNA versus RNA ), RNA World, Replication-The Experimental Proof, The Machinery and the Enzymes, Transcription, Transcription Unit, Transcription Unit and the Gene, Types of RNA and the process of Transcription, Genetic Code Mutations and Genetic Code, tRNA– the Adapter Molecule, Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression-The Lac operon.

UNITXII : Biotechnology

Principles and processes of Biotechnology – Principles of Biotechnology-Construction of the first artificial recombinant DNA molecule, Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology-Restriction Enzymes, Cloning Vectors, Competent Host ( For Transformation with Recombinant DNA ), Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology- Isolation of the Genetic Material ( DNA ), Cutting of DNA at Specific Locations, Separation and isolation of DNA fragments, Insertion of isolated gene into a suitable vector, Amplification of Gene of Interest using PCR, Insertion of Recombinant DNA into the Host, Cell / Organism, Selection of Transformed host cells, Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product, Downstream Processing – Biotechnology and its applications – Biotechnological Applications In Agriculture, Bt Cotton, Pest Resistant Plants, Other applications of Biotechnology Insulin, Gene therapy, Molecular Diagnosis, ELISA, DNA fingerprinting, Transgenic plants, Bio-safety and Ethical issues- Biopiracy

UNIT XIII : Plants, Microbes and Human welfare

Strategies for enhancement in food production Plant Breeding- What is Plant Breeding?, Wheat and Rice, Sugarcane, Millets, Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance, Methods of breeding for disease resistance, Mutation, Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests, Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality, Single Cell Protein ( SCP ), Tissue Culture – Microbes in Human Welfare – Microbes in Household Products, Microbes in Industrial Products-Fermented Beverages, Antibiotics, Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules, Microbes in Sewage Treatment, Primary treatment, Secondary treatment or Biological treatment, Microbes in Production of Biogas, Microbes as Biocontrol Agents, Biological control of pests and diseases, Microbes as Biofertilisers, Challenges posed by Microbes

Section-1 : Zoology

UNIT- I : Zoology – Diversity of living world

What is life? – Nature, Scope & meaning of zoology – Branches of Zoology – Need for classification- Zoos as tools for the study of taxonomy – Basic principles of Classification: Biological system of classification- ( Phylogenetic classification only ) – Levels or Hierarchy of classification – Nomenclature – Bi & Trinominal – Species concept – Kingdom Animalia – Biodiversity – Meaning and distribution ( Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Ecosystem diversity ( alpha,beta and gama ), other attributes of biodiversity, role of biodiversity, threats to biodiveristy, methods of conservation, IUCN Red data books, Conservation of wild life in India – Legislation, Preservation, Organisations, Threatened species..

UNIT- II : Structural Organization in Animals

Levels of organization, Multicellularity : Diploblastic & Triploblastic conditions – Asymmetry,Symmetry: Radial symmetry, and Bilateral symmetry(Brief account giving one example for each type from the representative phyla) – Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates and Eucoelomates :- Schizo & Entero coelomates ( Brief account of formation of coelom ) – Tissues: Epithelial – Types, Connective – Types, Muscular-Types and Nervous tissues. Skeletal tissues – cartilage – Types; Bone- types; Blood- Plasma, Blood cells; Lymph

UNIT- III : Animal diversity – i: Invertebrate phyla

General Characters – Strictly restrict to 8 salient features only Classification up to Classes with two or three examples – Brief account only

Porifera- Cnidaria – Ctenophora – Platyhelminthes – Nematoda – Annelida (Include Earthworm as a type study strictly adhering to NCERT and Academy text books ) – Arthropoda – Mollusca – Echinodermata – Hemichordata

UNIT- IV : Animal diversity – i i: Phylum : Chordata

General Characters – Strictly restrict to 8 points only Classification up to Classes – Brief account only with two or three examples

Phylum : Chordata – Sub phylum: Urochordata – Sub phylum: Cephalochordata – Sub phylum : Vertebrata – Super class: Agnatha – Class Cyclostomata – Super class: Gnathostomata – Super class pisces – Class: Chondricthyes – Class: Osteichthyes – Tetrapoda – Class: Amphibia ( Include Frog as a type study strictly adhering to NCERT and Academy text books ) – Class: Reptilia – Class: Aves – Class: Mammalia

UNIT- V : Locomotion & Reproduction in Protozoa

Locomotion : Definition, types of locomotor structures pseudopodia ( basic idea of pseudopodia without going into different types ), flagella & cilia ( Brief account giving two examples each ) – Flagellar & Ciliary movement – Effective & Recovery strokes in Euglena, Synchronal & Metachronal movements in Paramecium.- Reproduction:Definition, types. Asexual Reproduction: Transeverse binary fission in Paramecium & Longitudinal binary fission in Euglena. Multiple fission,- Sexual Reproduction. Syngamy, Conjugation.

UNIT- VI : Biology & Human Welfare

Wonderman of micracle drugs; Parasitism and parasitic adaptation – Health and disease: introduction ( follow NCERT and Academy ) Life cycle, Pathogenecity, Treatment & Prevention (Brief account only) 1 Entamoeba histolytica 2 Plasmodium vivax ; 3 Ascaris lumbricoides 4 Wuchereria bancrofti – Brief account of pathogenecity, treatment & prevention of Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common cold, & Ring worm.- Tobacco, Drugs and Alcohol absuse

UNIT- VII : Type study of Periplaneta americana

Habitat and habits – External features -Locomotion – Digestive system – Respiratory system – Circulatory system

UNIT- VIII : Ecology & Environment

Organisms and Environment: Ecology, population, communities, habitat, niche, biome and ecosphere ( definitions only ) – Ecosystem: Elementary aspects only Abiotic factors- Light, Temperature & Water ( Biological effects only ), Ecological adaptations – Population interactions – Ecosystems: Types, Components, Lake ecosystem – Food chains, Food web, Productivity and Energy flow in Ecosystem, Ecological pyramids ,Pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy. – Nutritient cycling – Carbon, Nitrogen, &Phosphorous cycles ( Brief account ) – Population attributes: Growth, Natality and Mortality, Age distribution, Population regulation. – Environmental issues- Pollution – Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution

UNIT-IX : Human Anatomy and Physiology-I

Unit IX A : Digestion and absorption

Alimentary canal and digestive glands- Gastric glands, Liver, Pancreas ; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, egestion, Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats ( for box item not to be evaluated ); Nutritional disorders: Protein Energy Malnutrion ( PEM ), indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea, Kwashiorkor.

Unit IX B : Breathing and Exchange of respiratory gases

Respiratory organs in animals; Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration; Respiratory volumes; Exchange of gases and transportation of respiratory gases; Regulation of respiratory movements, Respiratory disorders: Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders – Asbestosis, Silicosis, Siderosis, Black Lung Disease in coal miners

UNIT X : Human Anatomy and Physiology-II

Unit XA : Body Fluids and Circulation

Lymphatic system- Clotting of blood; Human circulatory system – structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system: Hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Unit X B : Excretory products and their elimination

Modes of excretion – Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, Uricotelism; Excretory organs; Human excretory system – structure of kidney and nephron; Urine formation, Mechanism of concentration of the filterate; osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function –Renin-Angiotensin – Aldosterone system, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders: Uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis, dialysis using artificial kidney.

UNIT XI : Human Anatomy and Physiology-III

Unit XIA : Muscular and Skeletal system

Skeletal muscle – ultra structure; Contractile proteins & muscle contraction; Skeletal system- Skull, Vertebral column, Sternum, Ribs, Girdles, Limb bones and its functions; Joints- Types. ( to be dealt with relevance to practical syllabus ); Disorders of the muscular and skeletal system: myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout, regormortis.

Unit XI B : Neural control and co-ordination

Nervous system in human beings – Central nervous system, Peripheral nervous system and Visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sensory perception; Sense organs; Brief description of other receptors; Elementary structure and functioning of eye and ear.

UNIT XII : Human Anatomy and Physiology-IV

Unit XIIA : Endocrine system and chemical co-ordination

Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system , Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action ( Elementary idea only ); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators; Hypo and Hyper activity and related disorders: Common disorders –Dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome.( Diseases & disorders to be dealt in brief )

Unit XIIB : Immune system

Basic concepts of Immunology – Types of Immunity – Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Cell mediated Immunity and Humoral Immunity, Interferon, HIV and AIDS.

UNITXIII : Human Reproduction

Unit XIIIA : Human Reproductive System

Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis & ovary; Gametogenesis “Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilization, Embryo development up to blastocyst formation, Implantation; Gastrulation, organogenesis, placenta formation, Parturition, Lactation ( elementary idea ).

Unit XIIIB : Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases ( STD ); Birth control – Need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy ( MTP ); Amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF-ET, ZIFT, GIFT ( elementary idea for general awareness ). Surrogacy

UNIT XIV: Genetics

Heredity and variation: Mendel’s laws of inheritance with reference to Drosophila. ( Drosophila melanogaster Grey, Black body colour; Long, Vestigial wings ), Pleiotropy; Multiple alleles: Inheritance of blood groups and Rh-factorr; Co-dominance ( Blood groups as example ); Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Skin colour in humans ( refer Sinnott, Dunn and Dobzhansky ); Sex determination – in humans, birds, Fumea moth, genic balance theory of sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster and honey bees; Sex linked inheritance – Haemophilia, Colour blindness; ‘Y’ linked inheritance, Mendelian disorders in humans: Thalassemia, Haemophilia, Sickle celled anaemia, cystiefibrosis PKU, Alkaptonuria; Chromosomal disorders –Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome; Genome, Human Genome Project and DNA Finger Printing,

UNIT XV: Organic Evolution

Origin of Life, Biological evolution and Evidences for biological evolution ( palaeontological, comparative anatomical, embryological and molecular evidences ); Theories of evolution: Lamarckism (in brief), Darwin’s theory of Evolution –Natural Selection with example ( Kettlewell’s experiments on Biston bitularia ), Mutation Theory of Hugo De Vries; Modern synthetic theory of Evolution – Hardy-Weinberg law ; Types of Natural Selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Variations ( mutations and genetic recombination ); Adaptive radiation – viz., Darwin’s finches and adaptive radiation in marsupials; Human evolution; Speciation – Allopatric, sympatric; Reproductive isolation.

UNIT XVI: Applied Biology

Apiculture; Animal Husbandry: Pisciculture, Poultry management, Dairy management; Animal breeding; Biomedical Technology : Diagnostic Imaging ( X-ray, CTscan, MRI ), ECG, EEG; Application of Biotechnology in health: Human insulin and vaccine production ; Gene Therapy; Transgenic animals; ELISA; Vaccines, MABs, Cancer biology, stem cells.


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