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**GSAT 2021 Syllabus**

**Quantitative Aptitude:** Data Interpretation, Decimal & Fractions, HCF & LCM, Mensuration – Cylinder, Cone, Sphere, Numerical Reasoning, Profit & Loss, Ratio & Proportion, Percentage, Sequence & Series, Time & Distance, Work & Time.

**Reasoning :** Alphabet Series, Arithmetical Reasoning, Blood Relations, Clocks & Calendars, Coding-Decoding, Cubes and Dice, Directions, Inserting The Missing Character, Logical Sequence of Words, Number Series.

**Verbal Ability :** Adverb, Antonyms, Articles, Comprehension, Conclusion, Critical reasoning, Grammar, Idioms and Phrases, Synonyms, Verb, Vocabulary, Word groups.

**(M.Sc. BIOTECHNOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOINFORMATICS, MICROBIOLOGY, FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE)**

**SECTION – A**

Classification, structure, properties, functions, metabolic pathways and disorders of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids. Nomenclature and classification of Enzymes. Factors affecting enzyme activity–Temperature, pH, substrate concentration. Enzyme inhibition, Coenzymes, metalloenzymes, allosteric enzymes and isoenzymes.

DNA replication, transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Concepts of immune response, cells and organs of the immune system, Antigen and antibody reactions: Precipitation and agglutination. Principle of vaccination and types of vaccines.

**SECTION – B**

Structure of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. Structure and composition of Plasma membrane. Cell division – Mitosis and Meiosis. Ultrastructure and functions of Cell organelles.

Photosynthesis and photorespiration. Biological nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen cycle and Phytohormones.

Principles of Mendelian inheritance, back cross and test cross. Linkage and crossing over. Sex linkage, Sex determination and Cytoplasmic inheritance. Mutations. Biosphere, Biodiversity, Plant succession, Biological pyramids, food chain, food web. Theories of Organic Evolution. Classification invertebrates and vertebrates. Structure and function of kidney, liver and heart. Physiology of muscle and nerve.

**SECTION – C**

Balanced diet, Major and minor food groups, Macro and Micronutrients, their sources and functions. Dietary fibers, sources and their role in human health. Vitamins and deficiency

diseases. Food Pyramids, Plants and animals as food sources. Food adulteration and food spoilage.

Structure of bacteria and viruses. Isolation of Bacteria. Pure culture techniques. Airborne, water borne, and food borne diseases. Protozoan parasites. Antibiotics. Fermentation. Bacterial growth curve. Methods of sterilization and pasteurization. Microbiology of water.Clinically important bacteria and viruses. Bacteriophages. Bacterial recombination transformation, conjugation and Transduction.

**Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies:** Definition, Scope and importance, need for public awareness.

**Natural resources and associated problems:** a) Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. b) Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought. c) Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources. d) Energy resources: Renewable and non-renewable energy sources. f) Land resources: Land degradation, soil erosion and desertification.

**Environmental Pollution:** Definition, Cause, effects and control measures of Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Marine pollution, Noise pollution.

**Disaster management:** Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone and landslides.

**Global Environmental Issues:** Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents.

**For Admission to M.Sc. Chemistry (Analytical/Organic)**

**SECTION- A**

**Inorganic Chemistry**

**Atomic Structure:** Review of: Bohr’s theory and its limitations, dual behaviour of matter and radiation, de Broglie’s relation, Heisenberg Uncertainty principle. What is Quantum mechanics? Time independent Schrodinger equation and meaning of various terms in it. Significance of ψ and ψ2, Schrödinger equation for hydrogen atom. graphical representation of 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals. Significance of quantum numbers, orbital angular momentum and quantum numbers ml and ms. Shapes of s, p and d atomic orbitals, nodal planes. Rules for filling electrons in various orbitals, Electronic configurations of the atoms. Stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals, concept of exchange energy. Relative energies of atomic orbitals, Anomalous electronic configurations.

**Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure**

**Ionic Bonding:** General characteristics of ionic bonding. Energy considerations in ionic bonding, lattice energy and solvation energy and their importance in the context of stability and solubility of ionic compounds. Statement of Born-Landé equation for calculation of lattice energy, BornHaber cycle and its applications, polarizing power and polarizability. Fajan’s rules, ionic character in covalent compounds, bond moment, dipole moment and percentage ionic character. Covalent bonding: VB Approach: Shapes of some inorganic molecules and ions on the basis of VSEPR and hybridization with suitable examples of linear, trigonal planar, square planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral arrangements. MO Approach: Rules for the LCAO method, bonding and antibonding MOs and their characteristics for s-s, s-p and p-p combinations of atomic orbitals, nonbonding combination of orbitals, MO treatment of homonuclear diatomic molecules of 1st and 2nd periods (including idea of s- p mixing) and heteronuclear diatomic molecules such as CO, NO and NO+

**Transition Elements**

General group trends with special reference to electronic configuration, variable valency, colour, magnetic and catalytic properties, ability to form complexes and stability of various oxidation states (Latimer diagrams) for Mn, Fe and Cu. Lanthanoids and actinoids: Electronic configurations, oxidation states, colour, magnetic properties, lanthanide contraction, separation of lanthanides by ion exchange method only.

**Coordination Chemistry**

Valence Bond Theory (VBT): Inner and outer orbital complexes of Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu(Coordination numbers 4 and 6). Structural and stereoisomerism in complexes with coordination numbers 4 and 6. Drawbacks of VBT. IUPAC system of nomenclature.

**Crystal Field Theory**

Crystal field effect, octahedral symmetry. Crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE), Crystal field effects for weak and strong fields. Tetrahedral symmetry.

**SECTION- B**

**Organic Chemistry**

Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry: Physical Effects, Electronic Displacements: Inductive Effect, Electromeric Effect, Resonance and Hyperconjugation. Cleavage of Bonds: Homolysis and Heterolysis. Structure, shape and reactivity of organic molecules: Nucleophiles and electrophiles. Reactive Intermediates: Carbocations, Carbanions and free radicals. Strength of organic acids and bases: Comparative study with emphasis on factors affecting pK values. Aromaticity: Benzenoids and Hückel’s rule.

**Stereochemistry:** Conformations with respect to ethane, butane and cyclohexane. Interconversion of Wedge Formula, Newmann, Sawhorse and Fischer representations.Concept of chirality (upto two carbon atoms). Configuration: Geometrical and Optical isomerism; Enantiomerism,Diastereomerism and Meso compounds). Threo and erythro; D and L; cis – trans

nomenclature; CIP Rules: R/ S (for upto 2 chiral carbon atoms) and E / Z Nomenclature (for upto two C=C systems).

**Alkanes:** (Upto 5 Carbons).Preparation:Catalytic hydrogenation, Wurtz reaction, Kolbe’ssynthesis, from Grignard reagent. Reactions: Free radical Substitution: Halogenation.

**Alkenes:** (Upto 5 Carbons) Preparation:Elimination reactions: Dehydration of alkenes and dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides (Saytzeff’s rule); cis alkenes (Partial catalytic

hydrogenation) and trans alkenes (Birch reduction). Addition of HX (Markownikoff’s and antiMarkownikoff’s addition). Alkynes: (Upto 5 Carbons) Preparation:Acetylene from CaC2and conversion into higheralkynes; by dehalogenation of tetra halides and dehydrohalogenation of vicinal-dihalides.

**Aromatic hydrocarbons:** Preparation (Case benzene): from phenol, by decarboxylation, from acetylene, from benzenesulphonic acid.Reactions: (Case benzene): Electrophilic substitution: nitration, halogenation andsulphonation.Friedel-Craft’s reaction (alkylation and acylation) (upto 4 carbons on benzene).

**Alcohols:** Preparation:Preparation of 1о , 2о and 3о alcohols: using Grignard reagent, Esterhydrolysis, Reduction of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and esters. Reactions: With

sodium, HX (Lucas test), esterification, oxidation (with PCC, alk. KMnO4,acidic dichromate, conc. HNO3).

**Aldehydes and ketones (aliphatic and aromatic):** (Formaldehye, acetaldehyde, acetone and benzaldehyde) Preparation: from acid chlorides and from nitriles. Reactions – Reaction with HCN, ROH, NaHSO3, NH2-G derivatives. Iodoform test.Aldol Condensation, Cannizzaro’s reaction, Wittig reaction, Benzoin condensation. Clemensen reduction.

**Carboxylic acids and their derivatives:** Carboxylic acids (aliphatic and aromatic) Preparation: Acidic and Alkaline hydrolysis of esters. Reactions: Hell – Vohlard – Zelinsky Reaction.

**SECTION- C**

**Physical Chemistry**

**Chemical Energetics**

Review of thermodynamics and the Laws of Thermodynamics. Important principles and definitions of thermochemistry. Concept of standard state and standard enthalpies of formations, integral and differential enthalpies of solution and dilution. Calculation of bond energy, bond dissociation energy and resonance energy from thermochemical data.Variation of enthalpy of a reaction with temperature – Kirchhoff’s equation. Statement of Third Law of thermodynamics .

**Ionic Equilibria:**

Strong, moderate and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, factors affecting degree of ionization, ionization constant and ionic product of water. Ionization of weak acids and bases, pH

scale, common ion effect. Salt hydrolysis-calculation of hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis and pH for different salts. Buffer solutions. Solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salts.

**Solutions **

Thermodynamics of ideal solutions: Ideal solutions and Raoult’s law, deviations from Raoult’s law – non-ideal solutions. Vapour pressure-composition and temperature-composition curves of ideal and non-ideal solutions. Distillation of solutions. Lever rule. Azeotropes.

**Electrochemistry**

Reversible and irreversible cells. Concept of EMF of a cell. Measurement of EMF of a cell.Nernst equation and its importance. Types of electrodes. Standard electrode potential.Electrochemical series. Thermodynamics of a reversible cell, calculation of thermodynamic properties: G, H and S from EMF data.Calculation of equilibrium constant from EMF data. Concentration cells with transference and without transference. Liquid junction potential and salt bridge.

**Kinetic Theory of Gases**

Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases and derivation of the kinetic gas equation.Deviation of real gases from ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, causes of deviation. vander Waals equation of state for real gases. Boyle temperature (derivation not required). Critical phenomena, critical constants and their calculation from van der Waals equation.Maxwell Boltzmann distribution laws of molecular velocities and molecular energies (graphic representation – derivation not required) and their importance.

**Chemical Kinetics**

The concept of reaction rates. Effect of temperature, pressure, catalyst and other factors on reaction rates. Order and molecularity of a reaction. Derivation of integrated rate equations for zero, first and second order reactions (both for equal and unequal concentrations of reactants).Half–life of a reaction. General methods for determination of order of a reaction. Concept of activation energy and its calculation from Arrhenius equation.

**PHYSICAL SCIENCES**

Candidate must attempt two sections. Section –A is compulsory, and candidate can choose any one section B or C or D

**SECTION-A**

**MATHEMATICS**

**Unit-I**

**REAL NUMBERSYSTEM, SEQUENCES AND SERIES:** Field axioms, Dedikind’s axiom, Bolzano’s theorem, Countability of sets, Sequences and their limits, Subsequences, Convergence and Divergence of sequences, Limit of a sequence, Cauchy sequences, Cauchy general principle of convergence, Definition of infinite series, necessary condition for convergence, Comparison test, nth root test, Ratio test, Integral test, Alternating series, Leibnitz test, Absolute convergence and Conditional convergence.

**Unit-II**

**VECTOR CALCULUS**

Vector differentiation, Ordinary derivatives of vectors, Space curves, Continuity, Differentiability, Gradient, Divergence, Curl operators, Formulae involving these operators. Vector integration, theorems of Gauss and Stokes, Green’s theorem in plane and applications of these theorems.

**Unit-III**

**GROUPS**

Groups, subgroups and cyclic groups, Permutations, Isomorphism-definition and elementary properties, Cayley’s theorem, Groups of Cosets, Normal subgroups-factor groups, the

fundamental theorem of homomorphisms.

**Unit-IV**

**DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS**

Linear differential equations, Exact differential equations, Simultaneous differential equations, orthogonal trajectories, equations solvable for p,x,y, solution of homogeneous linear differential equations of order n with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters.

**Unit-V**

**MATRICES**

Determinants, properties of determinants, elementary matrix operations and elementary matrices, the rank of a matrix and matrix inverse, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and

eigenvectors, diagonalization, Caley-Hamilton theorem.

**SECTION-B**

**STATISTICS**

**Unit-I**

Measures ofCentral Tendency – Mean, Median, Mode, Geometric Mean and Harmonic Mean, Measures of dispersion: Range, Quartile Deviation, Mean Deviation and Standard Deviation, Central and Non-Central moments.Skewness and kurtosis.

**Unit-II**

Basic Concepts of Probability, Conditional Probabilityand independence of events,addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Boole’s inequality and Bayee’s theorems, discrete and continuous random variables, Probability mass function, Probability density function, Distributionfunction and its properties,Bivariate random variables, joint, marginal and

conditional distributions.

**Unit-III**

Mathematical expectation (ME) of a random variable and function of a random variable, Moments and covariance, Moment generating function itsproperties, Chebyshev and Cauchy –

Schwartz inequalities, Discrete Distributions:Binomial, Poisson distributions and geometric distributionsContinuous Distributions: Rectangular, Exponential, Normal Distribution,Correlation and Regression.

**Unit –IV**

**Exact sampling distributions:** Concept of population, Parameter, random sample,statistic, sampling distribution, standard error, chi square, t and F distributions. Concepts of Statistical hypothesis: Null and alternative hypothesis, critical region, twotypes of errors, level of significance, power of a test, 1 tailed, 2 tailed tests, Neyman -Pearson’s lemma.

**Unit-V**

Large Sample Tests: Large sample tests for single mean, two means, Single proportion, Two proportions, Standard Deviation of single and double samples and Fisher’s Z transformation.

**SECTION- C**

**PHYSICS**

**Unit-1:**

**Mechanics of rigid bodies:**Definition of Rigid body, rotational kinematic relations, equation of motion for a rotating body, angular momentum and inertial tensor. Eulers equation, precession of a top, Gyroscope, precession of the equinoxes.

**Central forces:** Central forces – definition and examples, conservative nature of central forces, conservative force as a negative gradient of potential energy, equation of motion under a central force, gravitational potential and gravitational field, motion under inverse square law, derivation of Kepler’s laws, Coriolis force and its expressions.

**Unit -2:**

Thermodynamics:Introduction – Reversible and irreversible processes – Carnot’s engine and its efficiency – Carnot’s theorem – Second law of thermodynamics, Kelvin’s and Claussius statements – Thermodynamic scale of temperature – Entropy, physical significance – Change in entropy in reversible and irreversible processes – Entropy and disorder – Entropy of universe – Temperature- Entropy (T-S) diagram – Change of entropy of a perfect gas-change of entropy when ice changes into steam.

**Unit-3:**

Optics: Principle of superposition – coherence – temporal coherence and spatial coherence – conditions for Interference of light. Interference by division of wave front. Interference by division of amplitude. Introduction – Distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction. Resolving Power of grating. Methods of Polarization, Polarizatioin by reflection, refraction, Double refraction, selective absorption, scattering of light – Brewsters law – Malus law – Nicol prism polarizer and analyzer.

**Laser & Fiber Optics: Lasers:** Introduction – Spontaneous emission – Stimulated emission – Population inversion. Laser principle – Einstein coefficients – Types of Lasers – He-Ne laser – Ruby laser – Applications of lasers. Fiber Optics : Introduction – Optical fibers – Types of optical fibers – Step and graded index.

**Unit-4:**

**Dielectrics:** An atomic view of dielectrics, potential energy of a dipole in an electric field. Polarization and charge density, Gauss’s law for dielectric medium– Relation between D,E, and P. Dielectric constant, susceptibility and relation between them. Boundary conditions at the dielectric surface. Electric fields in cavities of a dielectric-needle shaped cavity and disc shaped cavity. Magnetic Materials:Dia, Para, Ferromagnetic Materials, Classical Langevin Theory of Paramagnetism, CurieWeiss’s law, Weiss’s Theory of Ferromagnetism and Ferromagnetic Domains.

**Unit-5:**

**Moving charge in electric and magnetic field:**Hall effect, cyclotron, synchrocyclotron and synchrotron – force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field, force and torque on a current loop, Biot –Savart’s law and calculation of B due to long straight wire, a circular current loop and solenoid.

**Electromagnetic induction:**Faraday’s law –Lenz’s law – expression for induced emf – time varying magnetic fields – Betatron –Ballistic galvanometer – theory – damping correction – self and mutual inductance, coefficient of coupling, calculation of self inductance of a long solenoid – toroid – energy stored in magnetic field – transformer – Construction, working, energy losses and efficiency.

**SECTION- D**

**ELECTRONICS**

**Unit-1:**

**AC Fundamentals:** The Sine wave –Average and RMS values–Phasor diagram – Complex impedance, .Network theorems (DC and AC): Superposition Theorem–Thevenin’s Theorem– Norton’s Theorem–Maximum power transfer Theorem–Reciprocity Theorem – Application to simple networks.

**RC and RL Circuits:** Transient response of RL and RC circuits with step input– time constants. RC and RL circuits –Low pass and High pass filter frequency response – Passive differentiating and integrating circuits. Resonance: Series resonance and parallel resonance RLC circuits – Resonant frequency – Q factor – Band width – Selectivity.

**Unit-2:**

**PN Junction:** Depletion region – Junction capacitance – Diode equation–construction, working, V-I characteristics and simple applications of i) Junction diode ii) Zener diode iii) Tunnel diode and iv) varactor diode.

**Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT):** PNP and NPN transistors–current components in BJT – BJT static characteristics (Input and Output). CB, CC, CE configurations (cut off, active, and saturation regions)

**Field Effect Transistor (FET):** Structure and working of JFET and MOSFET – output and transfer characteristics. Advantages of FET over transistor.

**Unit-3:**

**Operational Amplifiers:** Differential amplifier- Ideal characteristics of Op-Amp- Op-Amp parameters- Input resistance- Output resistance- Common mode rejection ratio (CMMR)- Slew rate- Offset voltages – Input bias current- Basic Op-Amp circuits- Inverting Op-Amp- Virtual ground- Non-inverting Op-Amp-.Applications of Op-Amps: Summing amplifier- subtractorVoltage follower- Integrator -Differentiator – Comparator.

**Communications:** Need for modulation-Types of modulation- Amplitude modulation-side bands- modulation index- diode modulator- Demodulation. Frequency modulation, detection of FM- Advantages of FM over AM.

**Unit-4:**

**Digital Electronics:** Introduction to number systems, Logic gates and truth tables RTL, DTL, ECL, TTL and CMOS logic families. NAND and NOR gates. Boolean algebra, De Morgan’s Theorems, Karnaugh Maps – Sum of products (SOP) and Product of sums (POS).

**Combinational and Sequential circuits:** Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer – Decoder, Half adder and Full adder circuits. Flip flops – RS, D and JK – Semiconductor memories –Synchronous and asynchronous binary counters, Up/Down counters- Decade counter (7490).

**Unit-5:**

**Introduction to Microcomputer and Microprocessor:** Intel 8085 Microprocessor – central processing unit CPU – arithmetic and logic unit ALU – timing and control unit – register organization – address, data and control buses- pin configuration of 8085 and its description. Timing diagrams. Instruction set of 8085, addressing modes.

**Exam Pattern for MCA and MSc Data Science programs**

The duration of the test is 2 hours. The test consists of three sections and all questions are of objective type (multiple choice questions). Each question has four options of which one is correct. Each correct answer will be awarded 2 marks. The wrong answer and unanswered questions will receive nil marks.

**Quantitative Aptitude****Reasoning****Verbal Ability**

The test will be held online. The students can give the test through a computer, tablet or a mobile, which should have an internet connection and a working front camera. The test is web proctored and usage of any unfair means is forbidden. The login details for the test will be shared with the candidates prior to the exam. Syllabus for GAT (MCA and MSc Data Science) 2021.

**Syllabus**

**Quantitative Aptitude:**

Data Interpretation, Decimal & Fractions, HCF & LCM, Mensuration – Cylinder, Cone, Sphere, Numerical Reasonin Profit & Loss, Ratio & Proportion, Percentage, Sequence & Series, Time & Distance, Work & Time.

**Reasoning:**

Alphabet Series, Arithmetical Reasoning, Blood Relations, Clocks & Calendars, Coding-Decoding, Cubes and Dice, Directions, Inserting The Missing Character, Logical Sequence of Words, Number Series.

**Verbal Ability:**

Adverb, Antonyms, Articles, Comprehension, Conclusion, Critical reasoning, Grammar, Idioms and Phrases, Synonyms, Verb, Vocabulary, Word groups.

#### JEE Main

Application Form Submission 16 Dec 2020 to 16 Jan 2021.