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{tab=India Economy}

Malegam Committee Caps MFI Interest at 24%

Reinventing MFIs :

The RBI appointed Malegam Committee has made a number of recommendations to address the crisis in MFI industry, after suicides in AP

  • At least 75% of the loan received by a borrower should be for income – generating purposes while the remaining could be for consumption purposes.
  • Not more than two MFIs can lend to a borrower.
  • A borrower can be a member of only one SHG ( Self Help Group ).
  • A cap of 24 per cent for interest in individual loans.
  • A 10% margin cap for MFIs having a loan portfolio of ₹ 100 crore and for 12% for smaller MFIs.
  • MFIs can charge processing fee, interest and insurance fee from their borrowers.
  • There should be a moratorium between the disbursement of loan and the commencement of recovery.
  • The tenure of loan must vary with its amount.
  • The primary responsibility of avoiding coercive methods of recovery must lie with the MFI.
  • RBI to prepare a draft Customer Protection Code.
  • Establishment of an ombudsman is also on the cards.

Indirect Tax Collections up 42.8% During April – December

Indirect tax collections registered a growth of 42.8 per cent during April – December, 2010 which is 75.7 per cent of the Budget Estimates for the fiscal 2010 – 2011. With ₹ 99830 crore customs collections increased 68.1 per cent and covered 86.8 per cent of total Budget Estimates. Central excise collection was ₹ 93281 crore, registering a growth of 33.7 per cent which was 71.5 per cent of Budget Estimates for the fiscal.

With 44081 crore service tax collections registered a growth of 19.2 per cent and achieved 64.8 per cent of Budget Estimates for the current financial year. Customs, Central Excise and Service Tax Revenue ( Provisional ) collection during April – December, 2010 along with comparative data for the corresponding period of previous year and growth rate over previous year are given below :

General Studies Question Bank CD

Indicus Analytics Report on Foodgrain Production Unveiled

18th, May 2012Olympic Flame arrives in UK
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India’s Nuclear Power Capacity Rises to 4780 MW

The fourth unit of 220 MW Kaiga Generating Station ( KGS – 4 ) located in Uttar Kanada district of Karnataka was connected to the southern power grid on January 19, 2011, after the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board ( AERB ) granted clearence to it. With the synchronisation of KGS – 4 with the grid. India’s nuclear power capacity has gone up to 4780 MW, with 20 reactors in operation.

The installed capacity of Kaiga station is now 880 MW, making it the third largest after Tarapur ( 1400 MW ) and Rawatbhata ( 1180 MW ). The unit, fuelled by indigenous uranium, will supply electricity to Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Puducherry.

Prime Minister Launches Pan – India Mobile Number Portability

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh launched the pan – India Mobile number portability ( MNP ) service on January 21, 2011 – MNP enables mobile users to retain their telephone numbers when changing from one mobile network operator to another. MNP which was launched in Haryana circle in November, will now be available to about 700 million mobile subscribers ( both GSM and CDMA ) across the country.

India Indonesia Sign 18 Pacts During Yudhoyono Visit

India and Indonesia signed 18 agreements worth $15.1 billion in sectors such as mining, infrastructure and manufacturing during the New Delhi visit of Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono who had come on a three – day visit from January 24 to 26, 2011 as the Chief Guest at the Republic Day parade in New Delhi.

Both countries have also set a target for bilateral trade to touch $25 billion in the next five years. Bilateral trade tripled in the last five years from $4 billion in 2005 and is expected to reach $12 billion in 2010. The two countries have also agreed to start negotiations for a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement ( CECA ). India’s free trade agreement with ASEAN has helped boost India – Indonesia bilateral trade.

Government Raises Tax Collection Target

The Union Finance Ministry on January 25, 2011 raised its tax collection target for 2010 – 11 by ₹ 37,000 crore to ₹ 7,82,000 crore. It also exuded confidence of meeting the target on the back of buoyancy in the mop – up so far driven by robust economic growth.

The government had budgeted its tax collections to touch ₹7,45,000 crore at the end of March 2011. Of this, the Budget estimate for direct tax collections was ₹ 4,30,000 crore, which is now revised to ₹ 4,47,000 crore. The target for indirect tax collections has been revised from ₹ 3,15,000 crore to₹ 3,36,000 crore. The government had collected ₹ 2.99 lakh crore from direct taxes and ₹ 2.37 lakh crore from indirect taxes till December, constituting 69.53 per cent and 75.5 per cent of budget estimates, respectively.

Economy to Grow 8.7% in 2010 – 2011 – RBI Professional Forecasters survey

India’s gross domestic product ( GDP ) is expected to grow 8.7 percent in the year, according to the Reserve Bank of India’s professional forecasters survey conducted in December. The previous survey showed a growth rate of 8.5 per cent. Improvement in exports, buoyant demand, a rise in volume of sales and new orders were factors that provided a boost to overall expectations. But persistently high rate of inflation can dent growth.

FDI Flows to India Drop 32% in 2010 – UNCTAD

Global flows of Foreign Direct Investment remained unchanged between 2009 and 2010, at $1.1 trillion, according to the UNCTAD Global Investment Trend Monitor, January 2011. However, there was a sharp shift away from developed economies, as a result of which, for the first time, developing and transitional economies walked away with more than half of all global flows. Developed Economies attracted an FDI of $ 526.6 billion in 2010 ( $ 565.9 billion in 2010 ) while Developing Economies had $ 524.8 billion ( $ 478.3 billion in 2009 ).

However not all developing countries have benefitted. In case of India, FDI flows dropped 32 per cent in 2010 at 23.7 billion ( $34.6 billion in 2009 ). Even as flows to developed economies as a group dropped 9 per cent, the US managed an impressive 43 per cent rise, from $129.1 billion to $186.1 billion.

Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Income

At constant ( 2004 – 2005 ) prices the gross national income at factor cost in 2009 – 2010 is estimated at ₹ 44,64,854 crore as against₹ 41,37,125 crore in 2008 – 2009 showing a rise of 7.9 per cent during the year. At current prices, the gross national income in 2009 – 2010 is estimated at ₹ 60,95,230 crore as compared to ₹ 52,49,163 crore in 2008 – 2009, showing a rise of 16.1 per cent during the year.General Studies Question Bank CD

S. No. Section / Subject Total Questions Total Marks
1. English 66 66
2. G.K. & Current Affairs 5555
3. Logical Reasoning / Metal Ability5555
4. Legal Aptitude 44 44
Total 220220

Per Capita National Income

The per capita income ( per capita net national income at factor cost ) in real terms, i.e. at 2004 – 2005 prices, is estimated at ₹ 33,731 for 2009 – 2010 as against ₹31,801 in 2008 – 2009, registering an increase of 6.1 per cent during the year.

The per capita income at current prices is estimated at ₹ 46,492 in 2009 – 10 as against ₹ 40,605 for the previous year depicting a growth of



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Gross domestic saving ( GDS ) at current prices in 2009 – 2010 is estimated at ₹ 22,07,423 crore as against ₹ 7,98,347 crore in 2008 – 2009, constituting 33.7 per cent of GDP at market prices as against 32.2 per cent in the previous year.

The increase in the rate of GDS has mainly been due to the increase in the rates of savings of public sector from 0.5 per cent in 2008 – 2009 to 2.1 per cent in 2009 – 2010 and private corporate sector from 7.9 per cent in 2008 – 2009 to 8.1 per cent in 2009 – 2010. In respect of household sector, the rate of saving has been decreased from 23.8 per cent to 23.5 per cent. In absolute terms, the saving of the household sector has increased from ₹13,31,033 crore in 2008 – 2009 to ₹ 15,36,071 crore in 2009 – 2010.

The saving of private corporate sector has gone up from ₹4,38,376 crore in 2008 – 2009 to ₹5,31,403 crore in 2009 – 2010 and that of public sector has gone up from ₹28,938 crore in 2008 – 2009 to ₹1,39,949 crore in 2009 – 2010.

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Physical world and measurementElectrostatics
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Properties of Bulk MatterDual Nature of Matter and Radiation
ThermodynamicsAtoms and Nuclei
Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic TheoryElectronic Devices
Oscillations and Waves

Capital Formation in India

Gross Domestic Capital Formation at current prices has increased from ₹ 19,27,107 crore in 2008 – 2009 to ₹ 23,89,213 crore in 2009 – 2010 and at constant ( 2004 – 2005 ) prices, it increased from ₹ 15,65,007 crore in 2008 – 2009 to ₹ 18,58,659 crore in 2009 – 2010. The rate of gross capital formation at current prices is 36.5 percent in 2009 – 2010 as against 34.5 per cent in 2008 – 2009. The rate of gross capital formation at constant ( 2004 – 2005 ) prices is 38.2 per cent in 2009 – 2010 as against 35.1 per cent in 2008 – 2009.

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Chemistry in Everyday Life

{tab=Foreign Trade}
India’s Foreign Trade Data for December 2010 Unveiled

Exports From India

India’s exports during December, 2010 were valued at US $ 22500 million ( ₹ 101601 crore ) which was 36.4 per cent higher in Dollar terms ( 32.1 per cent higher in Rupee terms ) than the level of US $ 16493 million ( ₹ 76907 crore ) during December, 2009. Cumulative value of exports for the period April – December 2010 was US $ 164707 million ( ₹ 751633 crore ) as against US $ 127182 million ( ₹ 608882 crore ) registering a growth of 29.5 per cent in Dollar terms and 23.4 per cent in Rupee terms over the same period last year.

Imports of India

India’s imports during December, 2010 were valued at US $ 25130 million ( ₹ 113477 crore ) representing a negative growth of 11.1 per cent in Dollar terms ( 13.9 per cent in Rupee terms ) over the level of imports valued at US $ 28251 million ( ₹ 131733 crore ) in December, 2009. Cumulative value of imports for the period April – December, 2010 was US $ 246724 million ( ₹ 1126513 crore ) as against US $ 207315 million ( ₹ 991605 crore ) registering a growth of 19.01 per cent in Dollar terms and 13.61 per cent in Rupee terms over the same period last year.

Oil imports during December, 2010 were valued at US $ 6926 million which was 16.0 per cent lower than oil imports valued at US $ 8247, million in the corresponding period last year. Oil imports during: April – December, 2010 were valued at US $ 72554 million which was 17.7 per cent higher than the oil imports of US $ 61661 million in the; corresponding period last year.

Non – oil imports during December, 2010 were estimated at US $ 18204 million which was 9.0 per cent lower than non – oil imports of US $ 20005 million in December, 2009. Non – oil imports during April – December, 2010 were valued at US$ 174170 million which was 19.58 per cent higher than the level of such imports valued at US$ 145654 million in April – December, 2009.

India to be World’s 5th Largest Consumer Market by 2025 General Studies Question Bank CD

Convergence of demographic, economic and technological forces will result in unprecedented changes in consumer behaviour making countries like India a large consumer market, according to a study by consultancy firm Deloitte. The report, Consumer 2020: Reading the signs’, said India would emerge as the world’s fifth – largest consumer market by 2025 providing significant opportunities for consumer business companies.

Food Grains Production Estimate for 2010 – 2011

Rice output is expected to be 94.01 million tonnes in 2010 – 2011 against 89.09 million tonnes in 2009 – 2010, wheat is likely to be 81.47 million tonnes compared to 80.80 million tonnes last year and pulses output is expected at 16.51 million tonnes against 14.66 million tonnes. The coarse cereals output at 40.08 million tonnes are also set to exceed last year’s level of 33.55 million tonnes. Among the non – food crops, the oilseeds output is likely to be 27.84 million tonnes this year against 24.88 million tonnes last year, cotton is expected to be 33.9 million bales of 170 kilograms each against 24.2 million bales last year, while sugarcane production is likely to be 336.69 million tonnes against 292.3 million tonnes last year.

Shivraj Patil Committee on 2G Submits Report

The Justice Shivraj Patil Committee has criticized the first come, first served ( FCFS ) policy adopted by both the UPA and the NDA governments between 2001 and 2009 for giving telecom licences and allocating 2G spectrum.

Growth in GDP at Market Prices at 9.7% for 2010 – 2011

The Central Statistics Office ( CSO ), Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation on February 7,2011 released the advance estimates of national income at constant ( 2004 – 2005 ) and current prices, for the financial year 2010 – 2011. These estimates are based on anticipated level of agricultural and industrial production, analysis of budget estimates of government expenditure and performance of key sectors like, railways, transport other than railways, communication, banking and insurance, available so far,

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Vaidyanathan Committee on Farm Statistics submits report

The Committee of Experts on agricultural statistics has recommended a radical restructuring of farm statistics in a phased manner to ensure objective, reliable and timely estimates of crop wise areas and yields. The Committee of Experts, headed by Prof. A Vaidyanathan, was constituted in 2009 to study a system of agricultural statistics and recommend necessary improvements.

India Japan Sign Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement

India Japan Agreement Highlights

  • India’s first CEPA with a developed country.
  • Trade deal with biggest GDP partner for both.
  • Tariffs to be eliminated on about 90% of Indian and 97% Japanese goods over ten years.
  • More offerings in the services sector than those at the WTO.

Gains for India

  • Elimination of tariffs for the textiles sector.
  • Pharmaceutical sector to get speedier clearance Shrimps, prawns, black tea and lumber to also see tariff elimination.
  • Easier entry into Japan for India’s skilled professionals in certain service categories.

Gains for Japan

  • Zero tariffs on auto parts made of steel.
  • Tariff elimination on farm products including yam, peach and strawberry.
  • National treatment at both pre and post investment stage.
  • Opening up of distribution services in single brand retail.

India and Japan signed the Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement
( CEPA ) in Tokyo on February 16, 2011.

Finance Minister Tables Economic Survey 2010 – 2011 in Parliament

  • Robust growth and steady fiscal consolidation have been the hallmark of the Indian economy in the year 2010 – 2011 so far. The growth rate has been 8.6 percent in 2010 – 2011 and is expected to be around 9 percent in the next fiscal year. The growth has been broad based with a rebound in the Agriculture   sector which is expected to grow around 5.4 per cent. Manufacturing and Services sector have registered impressive gains. Savings and investment are looking up while exports are rising.

General Studies Question Bank CD

  • However food inflation, higher commodity prices and volatility in global commodity markets have been a cause of concern underscoring the need of fiscal consolidation and stronger 1 reserves. These are some of the high points of the Economic Survey 2010 – 2011, presented by the Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee in Lok Sabha on February 25, 2011.
  • The Survey has observed that a rise in savings and investments and pick up in private consumption has resulted in 9.7 per cent growth of GDP at market prices ( constant ) in 2010 – 2011. Savings rate has gone up to 33.7 percent while the investment rate is up to 36.5 percent of GDP in 2009 – 2010.
  • The Survey points out that  food grain production went up to 232.1 billion tonnes from 218.1 billion tonnes in 2009 – 2010. With a relatively good monsoon the agriculture sector is expected to grow at 5.4 per cent during 2010 – 2011.
  • The Survey reports that the industrial output growth rate was 8.6 per cent while the manufacturing sector registered a growth rate of 9.1 per cent in 2010 – 2011.
  • Economic Survey 2010 – 2011 has highlighted the increasing role of infrastructure services which have been deepening rapidly with rising investments. The telecommunications sector has done well as the teledensity has increased from 20.74 per cent in 2004 to 143.95 per cent in 2010 in urban areas. While in the rural areas it has gone up from 1.57 per cent in 2004 to 30.18 per cent in 2010.
  • The Survey points out that the exports in April to December 2010 went up by 29.5 per cent while the imports during the same period registered a growth rate of 19 per cent. The trade gap narrowed down to US $ 82.01bn in the same period.
  • Balance of payment situation has improved due to surge in capital flows and rise in foreign exchange reserves which have been accompanied by rupee appreciation. Foreign exchange reserves increased from US $ 279.4bn in end April 2010 to US $ 297.3bn in end December 2010.
  • India’s External Debt : At the end of September 2010, external debt stood at US$ 295.8 billion, recording an increase of 12.8 per cent over the level of end March 2010. The rise was largely due to higher commercial borrowings, short term trade credits, and multilateral government borrowings.
  • The share of commercial borrowings stood highest at 27.8 per cent in the total external debt followed by NRI deposits ( 16.9 per cent ) and multilateral debt ( 15.8 per cent ). The maturity profile of India’s external debt indicates the dominance of long term borrowings with long term debt accounting for 77.7 per cent of the total external debt.
  • The Survey states that during 2009 – 2010, 5.26crore households were provided employment under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme ( MGNREGS ) as against more than 4.51crore during 2008 – 2009. During 2010 – 2011, about 4.10crore households have been provided employment till December 2010.
  • The Survey points out that as per the multidimensional poverty index ( MP1 ), India with a poverty index of 0.296 and poverty ratios of 41.6 per cent ( in terms of purchasing power parity ( PPP ) of $ 1.25 a day ) and 28.6 per cent ( national poverty line ) is not favourable placed when compared to countries like China and Sri Lanka.
  • The Indian government is the fifth most powerful in the world in terms of its ability to project the economy in the global sphere, as per a new ranking of 112 governments released as part of the Survey. As per the Index of Government Economic Power ( IGEP ) India’s economic power has increased substantially in the nine year period.
  • It moved to the fifth spot in 2009 from a ranking of 10 in 2000. According to the IGEP 2009, the US was at the top of the list, followed by China, Japan, Germany, India, Russia, Brazil, France, Italy and the UK. The index aims to assess a governments.

performers on the globe in terms of its ability to raise resources, credit worthiness and credibility in international financial markets and determine its importance in multilateral for a based on four variables government revenues, foreign currency reserves, export of goods and services and human capital.

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General Studies Question Bank CD

The Following Reforms Have been Suggested by Economic Survey 2010 – 2011 for Overall Growth of Economy

  • Better convergence of the schemes to avoid duplications & leakages and to ensure  benefits reach the targeted groups.
  • Private sector participation in social sectors, such as health and education in the form of public-social private partnership could be one of the possible.
  • Alternatives for supplementing the on going efforts of the Government.
  • Huge capacity addition in infrastructure in a time bound manner.
  • Urgent need to streamline land acquisition and environment clearance for
    infrastructure projects.
  • Bringing parity between the compensation package admissible under the
    Land Acquisition Act, 1894 and that applicable to land acquisition under
    the National Highways Act, 1956.
  • A National Forest Land Bank, with clear paper work and titles to reduce
    Approval time for forest clearance.
  • Investment in building managerial and technical capabilities of executing
    an agency at par with the private sector is crucial.
  • Second Green Revolution with technological break through in agricultural sector.
  • Prioritisation of targeed development of rainfed area and effective marketing.
  • Links is ensured for better returns to the farmers.
  • Further improvements in the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme suggested such as shifting to permanent asset building and infrastructure development activities, reducing transaction costs, better monitoring and extension of the scheme to urban areas.
  • Efficient taxation of goods and services by a new GST.
  • Need to explore avenues for increasing investment in infrastructure through a combination of power investment, PPPs and occasionally exclusive private investment wherever possible.

{tab=Economic Advisory Council}
Economic Advisory Council Unveils Review of the Economy 2010 – 2011

The Chairman, Economic Advisory Council to Prime Minister, Dr.C.Rangarajan released the Review of the Economy 2010 – 2011 in New Delhi on February 21, 2011. Following are the highlights of the Report:

Economy Expected to Grow at 8.6 Percent in 2010 – 2011 and 9.0 % in 2011 – 2012

  •  Agriculture expected to grow at 5.4% in 2010 – 2011 and 3.0% in 2011 – 2012.
  •  Industry expected to grow at 8.1% in 2010 – 2011 and 9.2% in 2011 – 2012.
  •   Services expected to grow at 9.6% in 2010 – 2011 and 10.3% in 2011 – 2012.

Slow Recovery in Global Economic and Financial Situation. Rising Domestic Savings and Investment Chief Engines of Growth

  •   Investment rate expected to be 37.0% in 2010-11 and 37.5% in 2011 – 2012.
  •   Domestic savings rate expected to be over 34% in 2010-11 and 34.7% in 2011 – 2012.

Current Account Deficit Estimated at 3.0% of GDP in 2010 – 2011 and 2.8% of GDP in 2011 – 2012
General Studies Question Bank CD

  •   Merchandise trade deficit projected to be $ 132.0 billion or 7.7% of the GDP in 2010 – 2011 and $151.5 billion or 7.7% of GDP in 2011 – 2012.
  •   Invisibles trade surplus projected to be $ 81.3 billion or 4.8% of the GDP in 2010 – 2011 and $95.7 billion or 4.8% in 2011 – 2012.

Capital Flows can be Readily Absorbed by Financing Needs of the High Growth of the Indian Economy

  • Against the level of $47.8 billion in 2009 – 2010, the capital inflows projected to be $ 64.6 billion for 2010 – 2011 and $76.0 billion for 2011 – 2012.
  • Against accretion to reserves of $13.4 billion in 2009-10, projected to be $12.1 billion in 2010 – 2011 and $20.2 billion in 2011 – 2012

Inflation Rate Projected at 7.0 % by March 2011

  • The declining trend in food prices particularly that of the vegetables will result in lower food inflation.
  • Manufactured goods inflation has remained low. Considerable care from the policy side has however to be taken to ensure that the manufactured goods inflation remains below 5 per cent in 2011 / 2012.

Monetary Policy to Complete the Process of Exit and Operate with Bias toward Tightening.

  • Liquidity conditions are taut enough for monetary policy signals to be appropriately transmitted to the financial sector.
  • Monetary and fiscal policies have to be appropriately tight to protect the economy from inflation.
  • Monetary policy has an important role to play even in situations where inflation is triggered by supply constraints.

Current year Fiscal Adjustment may not be a Problem, the Challenge is of Adhering to the Finance Commission’s Targets with Credible Expenditure Management.

  • Total Central revenues registering an increase of 62.9 per cent in ( April – December ) 2010 – 2011 over the corresponding period last year.
  • Capital Expenditure registered a sharp increase of 64.6 per cent ( April – December ) in 2010 – 2011.
  • Fiscal deficit outcome for 2010 – 2011 could be marginally better than the budget estimates.
  • The consolidated fiscal deficit is likely to be 7.5 to 8 per cent of GDP for 2010 – 2011.
  • There is considerable urgency in the implementation of goods and services tax ( GST ). Budgeted level of Fiscal Deficit and Revenue Deficit still beyond comfort zone.

To Sustain a Growth Rate of 9.0 Percent, Steps Required are :

  • Containing inflation by focusing both on monetary and fiscal policies and supply side management.
  • The pace of infrastructure creation has to be stepped up with renewed focus on the power sector.
  • Continue efforts to contain Current Account Deficit ( CAD ) at 2-2.5 per cent of GDP and in parallel encourage flow of external investments into thexountry.
  • Greater attention to agriculture including on seed development, management of water and soil fertility and improving delivery system.

India Set to be Worlds Largest Economy by 2050 – CITI

India is likely to become the world’s largest economy worth $85.97 trillion in a matter of just 40 years, surpassing China and the US. “China should overtake the US to become the largest economy in the world by 2020, then be overtaken by India by 2050,” said a report by financial services group Citi on Global Growth Generators on February 23, 2011General Studies Question Bank CD

Sl.NoName of the Paralympic SportsSl.NoName of the Paralympic Sports
1.Boccia11.Paralympic Rowing
2.Football ( 5 a - side )12.Paralympic Sailing
3.Football ( 7 - a - side )13.Paralympic Shooting
4.Goalball14.Paralympic Swimming
5.Paralympic Archery15.Paralympic Table Tennis
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6.Paralympic Athletics16.Volleyball (sitting)
7.Paralympic Cycling17.Wheelchair Basketball
8.Paralympic Equestrian18.Wheelchair Fencing
9.Paralympic Judo19.Wheelchair Rugby
10.Paralympic Powerlifting20.Wheelchair Tennis

Allocation Under MPLAD Scheme Increased

The Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee announced, in Lok Sabha on March 11, 2011, an increase in the allocation under the MPLAD Scheme from ₹ 2 crore to ₹5 crore per Member. This will result in additional allocation of ₹ 2,370 crore per year. Members cutting across party lines from both Houses have been demanding increase in the allocation under the MPLAD Scheme.

FDI Norms Liberalised

The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion on March 31, 2011 announced a slew of changes in its policies on foreign direct investment. These include allowing overseas firms in existing joint ventures to operate simultaneously in the same business segments. Earlier, overseas companies needed the prior approval of their Indian partners. During the first 11 months of this fiscal ( April – February ), FDI inflows into India declined by 25 per cent to $18.3 billion. India has received $144 billion of foreign direct investment since 1991, when it first opened the economy to foreign inflows.


  • Foreign companies need not get permission from their Indian joint venture partners if they plan to set up new units in the same field of business or wish to partner with another Indian firm
  • Companies to prescribe a formula for transforming convertible instruments ( like debentures, partly paid shares, preferential shares, among others ) into equity at market conversion
  • Businesses simplified into two categories  India owned and foreign investors owned
  • Equity permitted in exchange for import of capital goods, machinery and equipment
  • FDI allowed in development and production of seeds and planting material without stipulations like controlled conditions
  • No change in retail policy  FDI ban in multibrand retail to remain.

Railways Adds 700 km of New Lines in 2010 – 2011

Indian Railways has completed construction of a record 709 km of new lines in 2010 – 2011, according to an official release of the Ministry on March 31, 2011. The highest achievement in construction of new lines in one year previously was 357 km in the year 2008 – 2009. In the case of doubling projects also, the progress during 2010 – 2011 has been 769 km, which is the highest ever and almost three times the average annual progress of 260 km of doubling achieved since independence. In terms of gauge conversion, Railways completed 837 km in 2010 – 2011.

India Among Top 10 Industrial Nations – UNIDO

India is one of the top 10 industrial nations of the world with a growing trend of productivity improvements in its manufacturing industries, according to a report by the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation ( UNIDO ). China has secured the second position after the US, says the report, titled ‘International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics – 2011’. released on March 29, 2011.

India, Thailand to Double Bilateral Trade in Three years

India and Thailand on April 4, 2011 agreed to intensify Defence and security cooperation as well as double bilateral trade over the next three years. Bilateral trade between the two countries has grown 6 fold in the last decade and touched US $ 6 billion last year, growing at over 30% from the previous year. A joint statement, which was released after the summit meeting between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and his Thai counterpart Abhisit Vejjajiva in New Delhi.

Advance Estimates of Crop Production for 2010 – 2011 Released

  • Agriculture and Food Processing Industries Minister, Sharad Pawar on April 6, 2011 released the third advance estimates of crop production for 2010 – 2011. Despite a setback in the production of rice due to drought in some of the major rice producing areas in the country, foodgrains production reached the record level due to significant improvement in production of wheat, pulses and coarse cereals.
  • As per the latest estimates, India has produced 235.88 million tonnes of food grains during 2010-11 compared to 218.11 million tonnes in the previous year. This is highest ever food grains production, surpassing the earlier record of 234.47 million tonnes achieved in 2008 – 2009.
  •  The production of wheat, estimated at 84.27 million tones, is an all time record. Similarly, production of pulses, estimated at 17.29 million tones, is an all time record.
  •  Contributed by steady increase in production of soyabean and a quantum jump of 2.62 million tonnes over its production during 2009 – 2010, the oilseeds production, estimated at 30.25 million tones, is also an all time record.
  • Cotton production has increased from 24.23 million bales in 2009 – 2010 to 33.93 million bales in 2010 – 2011.
  •  The production of sugarcane, which had attained a record level of 355.52 million tonnes during 2006 – 2007 and declined in subsequent years, has again started witnessing increasing trend with an estimated production of 340.55 million tonnes in the current year.

General Studies Question Bank CD

The Production Estimates for Major Crops for 2010 – 2011 are as Follows

  •   Foodgrains : 235.88 million tonnes : highest ever
  •   Rice : 94.11 million tonnes
  •   Wheat : 84.27 million tonnes : highest ever
  •   Coarse Cereals : 40.21 million tonnes
  •   Maize : 20.23 million tonnes
  •   Pulses : 17.29 million tonnes : highest ever
  •   Tur : 3.15 million tonnes
  •   Urad : 1.82 million tonnes
  •   Moong : 1.37 million tonnes
  •   Oilseeds : 30.25 million tonnes : highest ever
  •   Soyabean : 12.59 million tonnes
  •   Groundnut : 7.09 million tonnes
  •   Cotton : 33.93 million bales of 170 kg each : highest ever
  • Sugarcane : 340.55 million tonnes

National Telecom Policy 2011 announcement

The Union Telecom Minister, Kapil Sibal, on April 11, 2011 announced the basic contours of the National Telecom Policy 2011 ( NTP – 2011 ), which will include for the first time, audit of spectrum held by telecom players, spectrum sharing, reduction in the tenure of renewed telecom licences from 20 years to 10 years, and liberalising of merger and acquisition norms. Sibal had taken over from scam-tainted telecom minister A Raja on January 1. The details will take a year to finalise to take all stakeholder opinion on board. The NTP will replace the 1999 policy that many regard as being at the root of the 2G scam.


  •  Mergers, acquisitions should be further liberalised; but each circle should have at least six firms .
  •  Spectrum sharing should be considered
  •  Spectrum to be delinked from licence
  •  Regular audit of spectrum by agencies
  • Licence to be renewed after 10 years, not 20 years like earlier

{tab=Rural India}
Rural India has 12.1 mn Active Internet Users – IMRB

The penetration of the internet in rural areas will see an all time high this year. In a survey conducted by IMRB for the Internet and Mobile Association of India ( IAMAI ), the total number of active internet users in rural area will rise by 98 per cent to touch 24 million by the end of this year from 12.1 million in December 2010. The survey said that the claimed internet user category is also set to grow by 96 per cent to reach 29.9 million by December 2011 from 15.2 million in December 2010.

Exports Register Growth of 37.5% in 2010 – 2011

4Computer science20Computer Science Engineering
5Management21Electronics & Electrical Engineering
6Mathematics22Mechanical Engineering
7Chemistry23Civil Engineering
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8English24Aerospace Engineering
9Kannada25Fire Engineering
10Hindi26Earthquake Engineering
12History28Cultural Studies
13Public Governance and Administration29Music
15Political Science31Visual Arts
16Mass Communication

Import Register in 2010 – 2011

Eligibility Criteria
Post Graduate Courses


A person who has passed with at least 45% marks in the aggregate in BCom or BBA or Bachelor of Arts / Science with Economics or Mathematics examination of the Kurukshetra University, or any other examination recognised as equivalent thereto, with English as one of the subjects shall be eligible to join this course . Candidates with compartment in graduation are not eligible to seek admission.
MA ( Economics )BA examination of the Kurukshetra University or any other examination recognised as equivalent with English as one of the subjects securing at least 50% marks in aggregate or at least 45% marks in English subject in aggregate of all the three years. Candidates with compartment in graduation are not eligible to seek admission.
MA ( English )
MSc ( Mathematics )BA ( Hons.) / BSc ( Hons) in Mathematics obtaining at least 50% of the total marks of all the papers of Mathematics of BA ( Hons.) BSc ( Hons.).
PGDCAA candidate seeking admission to PGDCA should have passed three year bachelor degree in any discipline or degree equivalent thereto from a recognized university.
Under Graduate Professional Courses


Senior Secondary Certificate Examination ( 10 + 2 standard ) of the Board of School Education, Haryana, Bhiwani or an examination recognised by Kurukshetra University equivalent thereto with at least 40% marks. Admission, even provisional, will not be given to candidates securing compartment in 10 + 2 examination. All other things being equal, preference will be given to the students who have passed 10 + 2 examination with commerce group and mathematics.


Senior Secondary Certificate Examination ( 10 + 2 Standard ) of Board of School Education Haryana, Bhiwani or an examination recognised by Kurukshetra University equivalent thereto with at least 50% marks and high proficiency in mathematics. For testing the proficiency in mathematics a candidate should have offered and passed Mathematics as elective subject in senior secondary examination. Previous exposure to computers will be desirable.
BBIA candidate for being eligible for admission to the Bachelor of Commerce ( Banking & Insurance ) Degree Course shall have passed 12th Std.


BCom ( Computer Vocational )
Senior Secondary Certificate Examination ( 10 + 2 standard ) of the Board of School Education, Haryana, Bhiwani or an examination recognised by Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra equivalent thereto with at least 45% marks. Admission, even provisional, will not be given to candidates securing compartment in 10 + 2 examination. All other criterion remaining same, preference will be given to the students who have passed 10 + 2 examination with commerce group and mathematics.


BA - MC ( Bachelor of Mass Communication )
Senior Secondary Certificate Examination ( 10 + 2 standard ) of the Board of School Education, Haryana, Bhiwani or an examination recognised by Kurukshetra University equivalent thereto with at least 50% marks. Admission, even provisional, will not be given to candidates securing compartment in 10 + 2 examination.- Basic understanding of the social processes.
- Basic understanding of the processes of communication.
- Learning the basic skills of writing in Hindi and English for various media.
- Learning the basic skills for performing various media tasks.
During the three years of the course, the students will be engaged in the process of keeping aware of the contemporary issues of the society. This may be carried out by way of classroom involvement of the students in :
(a) Presentations (b) Group discussions (c) Quiz
BTMSenior Secondary Certificate Examination ( 10 + 2 standard ) of the Board of School Education, Haryana, Bhiwani or an examination recognised by Kurukshetra University equivalent thereto with at least 50% marks.
Under Graduate Job Oriented Courses
BCom - Computer ApplicationBSc - Non Medical
BSc - Medical & BiotechnologyBSc - Computers & Electronics
BA - Pol. Sc., Hist., Eco., Music (V & I), Home Sc., Fun. Eng., Maths, Phy. Edu., Sanskrit Psychology & Fashion Designing
BA (Hons) - Economics & Sanskrit
U.G.C. Sponsored Career Oriented ADD-ON and Other Courses
- Export Management
- Insurance Management
- Retail Marketing
- Foundation Course in Human Rights Education
- Computer Maintenance
- Fashion Designing & Textile Designing
- Computer Application to Business & E-Commerce
- Photography and Videography
- Certificate Course in Human Rights Education
General Studies Question Bank CD

  • Indias merchandise exports for the year ending March 2011 touched US$ 245.9 billion registering a growth of 37.5%. This was the first time export figure reached the US$ 200 billion mark. Imports for the same period grew 21.5% to US$ 350.3 billion. The trade deficit figure has come down to US$ 10.4.4 billion.
  • The government had set a target of achieving exports worth $200 billion in the last financial year. It had also set an ambitious goal of realising $450 billion in export of goods by 2014. In 2009 – 2010, exports ended up falling 3.6 per cent to $178.6 billion and imports declined by 5.5 per cent year-on-year at $286.8 billion.
  • Union Minister for Commerce & Industry Anand Sharma, in his briefing about the trade performance for the financial year 2010 – 2011 on April 19, 2011, said the growth had mainly come from newer markets such as Latin America and Africa and not from traditional destinations of the US, Europe and Japan. Recent bilateral trade agreements signed with South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand and Association of South East Asian Nations ( ASEAN ) would contribute in achieving the target of $450 billion in exports by 2014. Highlights of India’s trade in 2010 – 2011 are :
  • Engineering goods by far constituted the largest component of exports.
  • Entailing considerable domestic value addition, engineering exports crossed US$ 60 billion registering a growth of 84.76%.
  •  Petroleum Products export were in the range of US$ 42.45 billion registering a growth of 50.58%
  • Gems & Jewellery sector which is a considerable employer of people saw an export of US$ 33.54 billion showing a growth of 15.34%
  •  Drugs & pharmaceuticals sectors for which India has gained a considerable global reputation saw total exports of US$ 10.32 billion
    Showing a growth of 15.08%.
  •  Textiles exports were $21 billion registering a growth of 34.5% over 2009-10. Readymade garments exports crossed US$ 11.1 billion showing a growth of 4.23%. Man-made yarn & fabrics saw exports of US$ 4.2 billion registering a growth of 16.1%. Cotton yarn fabrics saw an export of US$ 5.66 billion registering a growth of 42.87%.
  • Exports of carpet, jute and leather which are the labour intensive sectors assured considerable dynamism in growth. Carpets exports reached $1.1 billion in 2010-11, the first time they have exceeded the $1 billion mark.
  •  Exports of electronic goods grew 34.5 per cent at $7.4 billion.
  •  Agricultural exports and allied sectors including tea, coffee, tobacco, spices, cashew, oil meals, fruits and vegetables and marine products crossed US$ 12.92 billion.
  •  Iron Ore exports went down by 25% at US$ 4.5 billion

Prime Minister Approves Jaitapur Nuclear Project General Studies Question Bank CD

The first phase of the nuclear power plant project at Jaitapur in Maharashtra has been approved with additional safety measures and a “generous new compensation package” to be announced soon. The decision to approve the setting up of two 1,650 – Mwe reactors at Jaitapur was taken at a meeting convened by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on April 26, 2011.

India Ranked 32nd in World Competitiveness

India slipped one rank, to 32nd position in overall competitiveness among 59 nations, according to the ‘World Competitiveness Rankings’, announced on May 18, 2011 by the International Institute for Management Development, Lausanne ( Switzerland ).

India Ranked 35th in the Global Talent Index

India stands 35th in the ‘Global Talent Index Report : The Outlook to 2015’, which ranked 60 countries according to their capacity to develop, attract and retain talent in 2011. The report by the Economist Intelligence Unit and Heidrick & Struggles places India in the same position for the year 2015 ( projection ).

India’s Real GDP Growth at 8.8% in 2011 – 2012 – CMIE

India’s real GDP growth is expected to grow by 8.8% in 2011 – 2012 after having grown at 9% in 2010 – 2011, the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy ( CMIE ) said on May 22, 2011. The agricultural and allied sector is projected to grow by 3.3% in 2011 – 2012, on top of the 5.4% growth estimated in 2010 – 2011, said tha Mumbai based think tank said in its monthly review. Growth and inflation would remain high in 2011 – 2012. The industrial sector, including construction, is projected to grow by 9.4% during 2011 – 2012, as compared to 8.5% estimated in 2010 – 2011 the growth in industrial production will be driven by rise consumption arid investment demand. The growth in the services sector and its segments is projected to marginally moderate. The sector is projected to expand by 9 9% as compared to an estimated 10.2% in 2010 – 2011. Private final consumption expenditure is projected to grow by a healthy 7.5% and gross fixed capital formation by 14.6% in 2011 – 2012 in real terms.

Revised Estimates of National Income for the year 2010 – 2011 ( At Current Price )

Eligibility Criteria
M.Sc. (Ag.)College of Agriculture, BhubaneswarBSc ( Ag.) / BSc ( Hort.)
M. Sc.(Ag.) Fruit Science, Vegetable Science, Post Harvest Management and Floriculture & Land ScapingCollege of Agriculture, BhubaneswarBSc ( Hort.) / BSc ( Ag.)
MSc ( Agril.Statistics )College of Agriculture,BhubaneswarBSc ( Ag.) / B.V.Sc.&A.H./ BTech ( Agril.Engg.)
MSc ( Agril. Biotech )College of Agriculture,BhubaneswarBSc ( Ag.) / B.Sc.( Fo ) /
BSc ( Hort )
M.V.Sc. & A.H.College of Vet.Science & A.H. BhubaneswarB.V.Sc & A.H
MTech ( Agril.Engg.)College of Agril.Engg. & Technology, BhubaneswarBTech ( Agril.Engg.) / BSc ( Agril.Engg.& Tech.)
M.F.ScCollege of Fisheries, Rangeilunda, BerhampurB.F.Sc.
MSc ( Home Science )College of Home ScienceBSc ( Home Science )
MSc ( Forestry )College of Forestry, BhubaeswarBSc ( Forestry )

AgricultureCollege of Agriculture BhubaneswarBSc ( Ag) / BSc ( Hort.) and MSc ( Ag.)
HorticultureCollege of Agriculture BhubaneswarBSc ( Ag.) / BSc ( Hort.) and MSc ( Ag.) / MSc.( Hort.)
Vety.ScienceCollege of Vety. Sc & A.H BhubaneswarB.V.Sc & A.H. and M.V.Sc
Fisheries ScienceCollege of Fisheries, Rangeilunda, BerhampurB.F.Sc. and M.F.Sc.
Agril. EnggCollege of Agril. Engg. & Tech., BhubaneswarBTech ( Agril. Engg.) / BSc ( Agril. Engg. & Tech.) MTech ( Agril Engg.) / MSc ( Agril. Engg. & Tech )

Revised Estimates of GDP at Factor Cost by Economic Rate ( At Current Price )( ₹Crore ) General Studies Question Bank CD

Course Code
Course Name
Eligibility Criteria
Minimum %
CATEGORY I ( Section A in C-CAT )
PG-DGiPost Graduate Diploma in GeoinformaticsCommon eligibility criteria, OR Post Graduate in Physics / Computational Sciences / Applied Sciences / Geography / Geology / Mathematics or allied areas.50 %
PG-DHIPost Graduate Diploma in Healthcare InformaticsCommon eligibility criteria, OR Post Graduate in Physics / Computational Sciences / Life Sciences / Chemistry / Mathematics or allied areas, OR Graduate ( minimum 4 - year ) in Medical/ Biomedical / Pharmaceutical Sciences.50 %
CATEGORY II ( Sections A + B in C - CAT )
PG-DACPost Graduate Diploma in Advanced ComputingCommon eligibility criteria, OR Graduate in any discipline of Engineering or equivalent, OR Post Graduate in Physics/ Comput-ational Sciences/ Computing/ Mathematics or allied areas, OR Post Graduate in Management with graduation degree in Science.50 %
PG-DWiMCPost Graduate Diploma in Wireless & Mobile ComputingCommon eligibility criteria, OR Post Graduate in Mathematics or allied areas50 %
PG-DSSDPost Graduate Diploma in System Software DevelopmentCommon eligibility criteria55 %
PG-DITISSPost Graduate Diploma in IT Infrastructure, Systems & SecurityCommon eligibility criteria, OR Post Graduate in Mathematics or allied areas
CATEGORY III ( Sections A+B+C in C-CAT )
PG-DESDPost Graduate Diploma in Embedded Systems DesignCommon eligibility criteria55 %
PG-DVLSIPost Graduate Diploma in VLSI DesignCommon eligibility criteria55 %
PG- DIVESDPost Graduate Diploma in Integrated VLSI & Emb-edded Systems DesignCommon eligibility criteria55 %
PG-DASSPost Graduate Diploma in Automation & SCADA SystemsCommon eligibility criteria, OR Post Graduate in Mathematics or allied areas55 %
CST Exam
PG-DST ( 1 year course )Post Graduate Diploma in Software TechnologyGraduate in any disciplinePass

Teledensity at 72.08% – TRAI

Telecom operators in the country added 15.34 million mobile subscribers in April this year 2011, taking the total number of telephone users to 861.48 million, sectoral regulator TRAI said on June 14, 2011.

World rice output in 2011 estimated at 476 mn tonnes – FAO

Global rice production is expected to touch 476 million tonnes in 2011, on the back of improved weather conditions, as the influence of La Nina is expected to neutralise by June, United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organisation said on June 24, 2011. The world rice production reached a new record in 2010, at 464 million tonnes ( 696 million tonnes paddy ), up 1.8 per cent from the previous season, said FAO. World paddy production in 2011 is forecast to expand by 2.5 per cent to 713 million tonnes ( about 476 million tonnes, milled basis ). According to the third advance estimate of the Agriculture Ministry, rice production in India in the 2010 – 2011, season is pegged at 94.11 million tonnes.

FDI declines 62% to $7b in 2010 – 2011 – RBI

Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) into the country in 2010 – 2011 declined by 62 per cent in 2010-11 to $7.1 billion from $18.8 billion the previous year, according to the RBI data released on June 30, 2011.

  • Major Highlights : During the year as a whole i.e. April – March 2010 – 2011, despite improvement in net invisibles surplus, higher trade deficit led to increase in absolute size of current account deficit. However, as a proportion of GDP, CAD ( Current Account Deficit ) was marginally lower than the preceding year.
  • Trade Balance ( trade deficit ) widened to US$ 130.5 billion ( 7.5 per cent of GDP ) during 2010-11 from US$ 118.4 billion ( 8.6 per cent of GDP ) a year ago.
  •  Net invisibles surplus ( Invisibles Receipts minus Invisibles Payments ) increased to US$ 86.2 billion during 2010 – 2011 ( US$ 80.0 billion last year ). The increase in invisibles receipts was mainly driven by services exports, which recorded a growth of 37.8 per cent during 2010 – 2011 ( as against a decline of 9.6 during the preceding year )
  • The Current Account Deficit ( Trade Balance + Net Invisibles ) at US$ 44.3 billion works out to 2.6 per cent of GDP during 2010 – 2011 as compared to US$.38.4 billion ( 2.8 per cent of GDP ) a year ago.
  • Net capital inflows increased to US$ 59.7 billion mainly driven by external assistance, short-term trade credits, ECBs and banking capital. Although net capital inflows were higher, accretion to foreign exchange reserves during 2010-11 was marginally lower as a larger share of increased flows was absorbed by the widened current account deficit.

Major Items of India’s Balance of Payments ( US $ billion )

RankName of the Institution
1.Annalmalai University, DDE
3.Karnataka State Open University
4.Osmania University
5.Kurukshetra University
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6.Alagappa University
7.University of Mumbai
8.Sikkim Manipal University
9.Andhra University - School of Distance Education
10.Madurai Kamaraj University

RankName of the Institutions
2Annalmalai University, DDE
3Delhi University
4Bangalore University
5Bangalore University
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6University of Mumbai
7Madurai Kamaraj University
8University of Madras
10Amity School of Distance Learning


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Application Form Submission 16 Dec 2020 to 16 Jan 2021.