Earth Mountains

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Earth Mountains

Types of Mountains

Fold Mountains of the World

They are formed when the rocks of the crust of the earth folded under stress, mainly by forces of compression (as a result of series of earthquakes).

E.g. – All big mountain systems: Himalayas, Alps, Andes, Rockies, Atlas, etc.

On the basis of age, fold mountains are grouped into: Young / New Fold Mountains

Came into existence after the continental drift. E.g. Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alps. Himalayas are regarded the youngest mountains in the world.

Old Mountains

They belong to pre-drift era, then subjected to denudation and uplift; many faults were formed; occur as relict mountains today. E.g. Pennines (Europe), Appalachians (US), Aravallis (India).

Block Mountains of the World

These are formed when great blocks of earth’s crust may be raised or lowered. During the uplift of structural mountains, sometimes magma flows upwards into the crust.

On its cooling and hardening beneath the surface, it contracts and the overlying rock may crack into large blocks moving up or down. An intense folding of rocks is generally followed by faulting of strata due to horizontal forces of tension.

The land between the two parallel faults either raises forming Block Mountains or Horsts, or subsides into a depression termed as Rift Valley or Graben.

Eg: Narmada, Tapti and Damodar valley in India, the Vosges in France and Black forest in Germany (through which Rhine River flows).

Volcanic Mountains of the World

Formed as a result of volcanic eruption & the outflow of lava (through crater, the opening). Also called Mountains of Accumulation. Have a gentle slope.

E.g: Cotopaxi in Andes, Vesuvius and Etna in Italy, Fujiyama in Japan, Mauna Loa and Kilauea (Most active volcano) in Hawaii, Ojos del Salado in Argentina / Chile (Highest active volcano), Popocatepeti in Mexico, Raineer of Washington, Stromboli in Mediterranean (called Lighthouse of the Mediterranean), Mirapi and Krakatao in Indonesia, etc.

Relict Mountains

Sometimes, the mountains are carved out as a result of erosion of plateaus & high planes by various agents of erosion. E.g., Highlands of Scotland, Sierras of Spain, Catskill mountains of New York and Nilgiri, Parasnath, Girnar, Rajmahal of India.

Major Mountain Ranges of the World
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