Geography of India

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Current Geography of India

{tab=Indian Geography}

Home to the Indus Valley civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four major world religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated here, while Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zorastrianism arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped the region’s diverse culture. Gradually annexed by the British East India Company from the early eighteenth century and colonised by the United Kingdom from the mid – nineteenth century, India became a modern nation – state in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by widespread use of non – violent resistance as a means of social protest.

Location of Geography

  • India lies in the northern and eastern hemisphere of the globe between 84′ N and 37°6′ N latitudes and 68°7′ E and 97°25′ E longitudes.
  • The southern extent actually goes upto 6°45′ N latitude to cover the last island of the Nicobar group of islands. The southern extremity is called Pygmalion point or Indira point.
  • Its total land frontier of 15,200 km passes through marshy, lands, desert, level plains, rugged mountains, snow covered areas and thick forests.
  • Besides there is a maritime boundary of 6,100 km along the main land mass which increases to 7,516 km if the coastline of Andaman Nicobar and Lakshadweep Island are added to it.

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  • India – Afghanistan and Pakistan – Afghanistan international boundary is called the Durand Line, determined as 1 “militarily strategic border between British, India and Afghanistan.”
  • The India – China boundary ( 4,225 km ) is a natural boundary running along the Himalayan ranges and is based on various treaties. Its eastern part ( 1,140 km ) is called the McMahon Line.
  • The boundary with Pakistan and Bangladesh ( the East Pakistan ) was finalized at the time of partition in 1947 through the “Roadcliffe Award”.
  • India is only country which has given its name to an ocean, i.e., Indian ocean encircled by 46 countries ( 27 littoral including Australia, 7 island and 12 land locked countries ). India’s coast is 7,517 kilometers ( 4,671 mi ) long; of this distance, 5,423 kilometers  ( 3,370 mi ) belong to peninsular India, and 2,094 kilometers ( 1,301 mi ) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep Islands. According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coast consists of : 43% sandy beaches.
  • 11 % rocky coast including cliffs, and 46% mud flats or marshy coast.

Physical Features in Geography

  • India, the major portion of the Indian subcontinent, sits atop the Indian tectonic plate, the northwestern portion of the Indo – Australian Plate.
  • Its defining geological processes commenced seventy – five million years ago, when the Indian subcontinent, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a northeastwards drift, lasting fifty million years, across the then unformed Indian Ocean.
  • The subcontinent’s subsequent collision with the Eurasian Plate and subduction under it, gave rise to the Himalayas, the planet’s highest mountains, which now abut India in the north and the north – east.
  • Plate movement also created a vast trough in the former seabed immediately south of the Himalayas, which was subsequently filled with river – borne sediment, and now forms the Indo – Gangetic Plain.
  • To the west of this plain, and cut off from it by the Aravalli Hills, lies the Thar Desert. The original Indian plate now survives as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part of India, and extending as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India; these parallel ranges run, west to east, from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat to the coal – rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand.
  • To their south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan plateau, flanked on the left and right by the coastal ranges, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats respectively, contains the oldest rock formations in India, some over one billion years old.

Size and Shape

  • India commands a total geographical area of 32,87,263 which is roughly 0.57% of the area of the earth and 8.4% of total area of the land hemisphere.
  • After Russia, China, Canada, USA, Brazil and Australia. India is the 7th largest country of the world. Its area is almost equal to the area of Europe ( excluding Russia ), one – third of Canada, one – fifth of Russia, eight times of Japan and 12 times of United Kingdom.
  • In population – size, India ( 1027 million in 2001 ) is the 2nd gaint country in the world after China ( 12.65 million in 2000 ).
  • Its total population is more than the combined population of USA, Russia, Australia, Canada and Japan.
  • India has roughly a quadrangular shape. It measure about 3,214 km from north to south and about 2,933 km from east to west, the difference between the two being just 281 km.
  • Indian Rivers

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  • Major Himalayan – origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal, important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi, nicknamed “Bihar’s Sorrow”, whose extremely low gradient causes disastrous floods every year.
  • Major peninsular rivers — whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding – inctude the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal, and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea.
  • Among notable coastal features of India are the marshy Rann of Kutch in western India, and the south – western region of the alluvial Sundarbans delta, which India shares with Bangladesh. India has two archipelagos : the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India’s south – western coast, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.
  • India’s climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the dynamics of the monsoons.
  • The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.
  • Concurrently, the Thar Desert plays a ( role in attracting moisture – laden southwest summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India’s rainfall ).
  • Four major climatic groupings predominate in India : Tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.

Geography Physiographic Divisions

  • The Himalayan mountains are the youngest and the loftiest of the fold mountain systems in the world.
  • The Himalayas stretch in the form of an arcuate curve convex to the south for a distance of once 2400 Km from the Indus gorge in the west to the Brahmputra gorge in the east.
  • The Himalayas cover an area of nearly 5 lakh Sq. Km.
  • The width of the Himalayas varies from 500 Km in Kashmir to 2Q0 Km in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The Pamir, popularly known as roof of the world is the connecting link between the Himalayas and the high ranges of Central Asia.

{tab=Division of Himalayas}

Geography of Himalayas Division

  • The Himalayas are believed to have been formed as a result of the convergence of Angaraland in the North and Gondwanaland in the South. The Sediments in the Himalayan Geosynclines, i.e., the Tethys Sea were folded due to compression to take the form of mighty Himalayas.
  • Geographically, the entire Himalayan region can be divided into :
  1. The three almost parallel Himalayan Ranges
    • The Inner Himalaya / The Great Himalaya or Himadri.
    • The Middle Himalaya / The lesser Himalaya or Himachal.
    • The Outer Himalaya or the Shivalik.
  2. The Trans – Himalayas
  3. The Eastern Hills ( The Purvanchals )

Geography Longitudinal or Regional Division

  1. Kashmir Himalayas between river Indus and Satfuj.
  2. Kumaon Himalayas between river Satluj and river Kali.
  3. Nepal Himalayas between river Kali and river Teesta.
  4. Assam Himalayas between river Teesta and Brahmaputra Gorge.

( A ) I. Great Himalayas

  • It is the loftiest and the most continuous mountain range of the world.
  • Average Elevation : 6100 m above sea level.
  • Average width : 25 Km.
  • This mountain are, convex to the south, terminates abruptly in the Nanga Parbat in north – west and in the Namcha – Barwa in the north – east.
  • This mountain range boasts of the tallest peaks of the world – Mt. Everest, Kanchanjunga, Makalu, Dhaulagiri, Nanga Parabat, Annapurna, Nanda Devi, Namcha Barwa.
  • Important Passes – Burzil, Zojila; Bara Lacha La and Shipkila ( H.R ); Niti and Lupulekh ( Uttaranchal ); Nathula and Jelep La ( Sikkim ).

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II. Middle Himalayas

  • Lies to the south of greater Himalaya and separated from the Shiwalik range in the south through the Main Boundary Thrust ( MBT ).
  • Average elevation – 3500 – 4500 m above sea level.
  • Average width – 60 – 80 Km.
  • Imp. Ranges : The Pir Panjal, the Dhaula Dhar, the Mussorie range, the Nag Tiba and the Mahabharat Lekh.
  • Imp. Hill Stations : Shimla, Mussorie, Nainital, Ranikhet, Almora, Darjeeling etc.
  • Valleys : Kashmir Valley, Kangra Valley and Kullu Valley.

III. Shivalik

  • Runs for 2400 Km from Pot war Plateau to Brahmaputra Valley.
  • Altitude – 600 to 1500 m.
  • Width varies from 50 km in HP to 15 km in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The pain hills include Jammu Hills of Jammu and Dabla, Miri, Abor and Mishmi Hills in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Between Shivalike and the Middle Himalayas, there are flat floored. Valleys that are densely populated and intensively cultivated. These are called DOONS e.g. Dehradun and Ratlidun etc.
  • They are known as Duars in the East.

( B ) Trans – Himalayas

  • The Himalayan ranges immediately north of the Great Himalayan Range are called the Trans – Himalayas.
  • Also called the Tibetan Himalaya.
  • From south to north, the Trans – Himalayas include; Zaskar, Ladakh, Kailash – an offshoot of the Ladakh Range. Karakoram range.
  • It stretches for 1000 km in east – west Average Elevation – 300 m direction.
  • Average width – 40 km at the eastern and western extremeties and 225 km in the central part.

( C ) Eastern Hills or Purvanchal

  • After crossing the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas take a sudden south ward turn and form a series of comparatively low hills extending from Arunachal Pradesh in the north to Mizpram in the south forming India’s 1 boundary with Myanmar – they are called the Purvanchal.
  • In the north is the Patkai Bum, After running for some distance southwards, it merges into Naga Hills. Patkai Bum and Naga Hills form the watershed between India and Myanmar.
  • South of Naga Hills are the Manipur Hills separated by the Brail Range: which swings to south – west and then west into Jaintia, Khasi and Garo Hills.
  • To the south of Manipur Hills lie the Mizo Hills

Geography of the Great Plains IndiansGeneral Studies Question Bank CD

  • To the south of the Himalayas and to the north of the peninsula lies the great plain of North India. It is an aggradational plain formed by the depositional work of three major river systems viz Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra.
  • This is the largest alluvial tract of the world extending for a length of 3200 km from the mouth of the Indus to the mouth of Ganga. Its average width is 150 to 300 km. It is widest in the west and goes on decreasing towards east.
  • River flowing through this plain, especially those originating in the Himalayas have deposited a thick layer of alluvium throughout the length and breadth of this plain.
  • Extreme horizontally of this monotonous plain is chief characteristics, whereas its average elevation is about 200 m above sea level.
  • Its highest elevation is 291 m above mean sea level between Ambala and Saharanpur. The comparatively high area near Ambala forms the watershed which divides the drainage system of Ganga from that of Indus.
  • According to recent views, sediments deposited at the bed of the Tethys Sea was folded and warped due to northward drift of the peninsula.
  • Consequently the Himalayas and a trough to the south were formed. The great plain represents the infilling of the foredeep warped down between the advancing peninsular block and the Himalayas.
  • Bhabar is a narrow belt about 8-16 km wide running in east – west direction along the foot of the Shiwaliks with a remarkable continuity from Indus to Tista along the foothills in the form of alluvial fan.
  • Tarai is a 15 – 30 km wide marshy tract in the sough of Bhabar running parallel to it. It is marked by the re – emergence of the underground streams of the Bhabar belt.
  • The re – emerged water convert large areas along the rivers into ill – drained marshy lands of excessive dampness, covered with forest giving shelter to variety of wildlife.
  • Bhangar is composed of old alluvium of the middle pleistocene age and form the alluvial terrace above the level of flood plains. It is often impregnated with calcareous concretions known as Kankar.
  • Khadar is composed of newer alluvium and forms the floods plains along the river banks. A new layer of alluvium is deposited by river flood almost every year. The day have less Kankar and the organic remains entombed in them belong to still living species.
  • Reh or Kallar comprises barren saline efforescens of dries areas in Uttar Pradesh and
  • Haryana. It is result of irrigation in arid areas.
  • Bhur denotes an elevated piece of Land situated along the banks of the Ganges. This has formed due to accumulation of wind blown sands during the hot dry summer.

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Geography of Rajasthan Plains

  • The western extremity of the great plain of India consists of the Thar or the Great Indian Desert. 2 / 3rd of it lies in Rajasthan and the remaining l / 3rd in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab. The desert proper is called Marusthali. Geologically it is a part of the peninsular plateau and it is only at the surface that it looks like an aggradational plain.
  • The eastern part of the Marusthali is rocky while its western part is covered by shifting sand dunes locally known as Dhrian.
  • The eastern part of the Thar Desert, upto the Aravalli Range is a semiarid plain which is known as the Rajasthan Bagar. It runs in a north – east to south – west direction from the edge of Aravalli in the east to the 25 cm isolyte in the west. It is drained by a number of short seasonal streams originating from the Aravalli and supports agriculture in the some patches of fertile tracts called Rohi.
  • Luni flows through this region towards the south – west to the Rann of Kuchchh. The north of the Luni is known as Thali or sandy plain.
  • North of the Luni basin, there is a large area of tinland drainage on the eastern edge of the Thar Desert having several saline lakes.
  • These lakes are great source of common salts and many other salts. Some of important lakes are Sambhar, the Didwana, The Degana, Kuchaman.

Geography of Punjab Haryana Plain

  • The entire plain extends for a length of 640 km in north – west to south­east direction and is about 300 km wide in east – west direction. Its eastern boundary is formed by the Yamuna river. The average elevation of the plain is about 250m above mean sea level. Part of the plain shows a flat to slightly convex planation controlled by subsurface Delhi – Aravalli Ridge.
  • The part of the plain, formed as a result of alluvial deposits by five rivers, viz the Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum is known as Punjab plains – land of five rivers.
  • It is primarily made up of ‘doabus’ – the land between the two rivers. From east to west these are :
  • Biast – Jalandhar Doab lying between Beas and Sutlej.
  • Bari Doab, between the Beas and the Ravi.
  • Rachna Doab between the Ravi and the Chenab.
  • Chaj Doab between the Chenab and the Jehlum.
  • Sind Sagar Doab between the Jhelum, Chenab and the Indus.
  • The mass of alluvium has been broken by the river courses which have carved for themselves broad flood plains of Khadar flanked by bluffs, locally known as Dhaya.
  • The Khadar belt known as bet lands, though liable to flooding is agriculturally valuable.
  • The northern part of this plain adjoining the Shiwalik hills has been intensively eroded by numerous streams called Chos. They have enormous gullying. The erosion by the chos is particularly noticed in Hoshiarpur. About 32 km wide of chos is rendered infertile because of erosion.

{tab=Ganga Plain}

Geography of Ganga Plain

  • This is the largest unit of the great plain of India stretching from Delhi to Calcutta in states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal covering an area of about 3.75 lakh sq. km.
  • The Ganga along with its large number of tributaries originating in the Himalayan ranges viz. The Yamuna, the Gomati, the Ghaghara, the Gandak etc. have brought large quantities of alluvium from the mountains and deposited here to build this extensive plain.
  • The peninsular rivers such as Chambal, Betwa, Ken, Son etc. joining the Ganga river system have also contributed to the formation of this plains.
  • The general slope is to the east and South – East. It is further divided into :

I. Upper Ganga Plain

  • This plain is delimited by the 300 m contour in Shiwaliks in north, the penipsular boundary in the south and the course of Yamuna river in west.
  • The plain is drained by the Ganga and its tributaries like the Yamuna, the Ram Ganga, the Sharda, the Gomti and Ghaghara rivers.
  • The average gradient of the land is about 25 cm per km.
  • The monotony of this flat and featureless plain is broken by the Tarai – Bhabar submontane belt and on micro level by the river bluffs, river meanders and Ox – bow lakes, levees abandoned river courses. The western part of this plain comprises of comparatively higher Ganga – Yamuna Doab. East of it is low lying Rohilkhand plains which merge into Avadh plains further east.

 II. Middle Ganga Plain

  • It occupies eastern part of Uttar Pradesh and northern part of Bihar. It measures about 600 km. in east – west and nearly 330 km. in north south direction.
  • This plain is drained by the Ghaghara, Gandak and Kosi rivers, all tributaries of Ganga from the Himalayas.
  • They flow sluggishly in this flat land as a result of which the area is marked by local prominences such as levees, bluffs, Ox-bow lakes, marshes, tails, ravines etc.
  • The Kankar formation is comparatively less due to preponderance of the Khadar. Almost all rivers keep on shifting their courses making this area prone to frequent floods.

 III. Lower Ganga PlainGeneral Studies Question Bank CD

  • This plain includes the Krishanganj tehsil of Pumea district in Bihar and whole of West – Bengal. The northern part of this plain has been formed by the sediment deposited by the Tista, Jaldhaka and Torsa. Besides this area is marked by, Duars and Barinds plain, a tract of old alluvium between the Kosi-Mahananda corridor in the west and river Sankosh in the east.
  • The delta formation accounts for about 2 / 3rd of this plain. This is the largest delta in the world. The slope of land is a mere 2 cm per km.
  • The seaward face of the delta is studded with a large number of estuaries, mud flats, Mangrove, swamps, sandbamls. Island and forelands.
  • Large part of the coastal delta is covered by thick impenetrable tidal forests. These are called Sunderbans because of the predominance of Sundri tree here.

Geography of Brahmaputra Plain

  • It is a well demarcated unit of Great Indian plains grilled by the eastern Himalayas of Arunachal Pradesh, Patkai and Naga Hills in the East, Meghalaya Plateau in the south.
  • It is an aggradational plain built up by the depositional work of the Brahmaputra and its tributaries. The Brahmaputra river enters this plain near Sadiya and flows further to Bangladesh after turning south – ward near Dhubri.
  • The northern margin has steep slope from foothills of Arunachal Pradesh but southern margin is marked by gradual fall from hill ranges.
  • The innumerable tributaries of the Brahmaputra river coming from the north debouch abruptly to the main valley and form a number of alluvial fans.
  • The area is well demarcated by 150 m contour beyond which the surrounding hill terrain dominates the scene.
  • Consequently the tributaries branch out in many channel giving birth to river meandering leading to formation of hills and Ox – bow lakes. There are large marshy tracts in this area.

Geography Peninsular Plateau

  • Roughly triangular in shape with base coinciding with the southern edge of the Great Plain of North India between Delhi Ridge in the west along with the Aravallies to Rajmahal and Meghalaya Plateau in the east and its apex is formed by Kanniyakumari in the southern extremity Westerfi Ghats and the Eastern Ghats form its western and eastern boundaries respectively.
    •  N – S extent – 1600 Km
    •  E – W extent – 1400 Km
  • Area – 16 lakh sq. km ( half of the total land area of the country. Thus, it is the largest physiographic unit of India ). Average Height – 600 – 900 m.

General Slope – The Slope is towards the Ganga Plains north of the Vindhyas and south – easterly to the South of the Satpura ranges with the exception of Narmada – Tapi rift which slopes westwards.

Plateaus of Peninsular Geography India

  • The Marwar Upland : Lying to the east of the Aravali Range, it is made up of sandstone, shales, limestones of the Vindhyan Period. The area has been carved into a rolling plain by the erosional work of the Banas river.
  • The Central Highland : Also called the Madhya Bharat Pathar, it lies to the east of the Marwar Upland. It is drained by river Chambal and its tributaries – the Sindh and the Rarbati.
  • The Bundelkhand : To the south of the Yamuna river between the Madhya Bharat Pathar and the Vindhyan scarplands is the old dissected upland composed of. granite and gneiss. This is called the Bundelkhand upland.
  • The Malwa Plateau : Roughly forms a triangle based on the Vindhyan Hills in the south, bounded by, the Aravali Range in the west and sharply defined scarp overlooking Bundelkhand in the east. It is drained by, the north flowing Chambal and tributaries like the Kali, the Sindh’and the – Parbati. It also includes the upper courses of the Ken and the Betwa.Jt is composed of extensive lava flow and covered with black soils. In the north, the plateau is marked by the Chambal ravines or badlands.
  • The Baghelkhand : East of the Maikal Range is the Baghelkhand. The central part of the plateau acts as a water divide between the Son drainage system in the north and the Mahanadi river sysfem in the south.
  • The Chotanagpur Plateau : Lying to the east of Baghelkhand, it covers Jharkhand, the adjoining eastern fringe of Madhya Pradesh and Purulia district of West Bengal. The Plateau is composed of Gondwana rocks with patches of Granites and gneisses and Deccan laves. The highest elevation is in the mid – western portion known as the Pat land, ( high level laterite plateau), e.g. The rietarhat Pat. The platean is drained by numerous rivers presenting-a radial pattern, like the Damodar, the Subarnarekha, the North Koel, the South Koel and Barkar etc.
  • To the north of river Damodar, it is called the Hazaribagh Plateau and to the south of river Damodar, the Ranchi Plateau. The Rajmahal Hills form the north – eastern edge of the Chotanagpur plateau. They run in north – south direction.
  • The Meghalaya Plateau ( the Shillong Plateau ) : It is separated from the main block of the – peninsular plateau by a wide gap known as the Garo – Rajmahal Gap. The western, central and eastern parts of the plateau are known as the Garo Hills the Khasi – Jaintia Hills, and the Mikir Hills. Shillong is the highest point of the plateau.
  • The Deccan Plateau : It is the largest unit of the Peninsular Plateau covering an area of 5 lakh sq. Km. This triangular plateau is bounded by the Satpura and the Vindhya ranges in the north – west, the Mahadeo and the Maikala hills in the north, the Western Ghats in the west and the Eastern Ghats in the east. Its general slope is west to east indicated by the flow of its major rivers – the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery which have further sub – divided the plateau into a number of smaller plateaus :

( A) The Maharashtra PlateauGeneral Studies Question Bank CD

1. Deccan Trap Topoggaphy.

2. Soil : Black Cotton Soil / Regur.

3. Godavari, Bhima and Krishna Rivers.

( B ) The Karnataka Plateau / The Mysore Plateau

1. The Tungabhadra and the Qauvery river.

2. Highest Peak is at Mulangiri in Baba Budan Hills of Chikmagalur district.

3. Divided into two parts

( i ) Malnad ( Hilly )

( ii ) Maidan ( Plain )

( C ) The Telangana Plateau ( Andhra Pradesh )

1. The Godavari, the Krishna and the Penneru rivers.

2. The plateau is divided into two physiographic regions – the Ghats and the Peneplains.

  • The Chattisgarh Plain : It is the only plain worth the name in the vast stretch of the Peninsular Plateau. It is a saucer shaped depression drained by the upper basin of the Mahanadi. The whole basin lies between the Maikala Range and the Odisha Hills.

Hill Ranges of Peninsula

  • The Aravali Range : It runs in a north – east to south – west direction between Delhi and Palampur in Gujarat. The Aravallis represent the select of the World’s oldest fold mountain.

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Under the Aravali

  • Gurushikhar :  ( 1,722 m ) is the highest peak situated in Mt. Abu Ban Piplighat, Dewair and Desuri passes allow movements by road and railways.
  • The Vindhyan Range : The Vir \ dhyan range rises as an escarpment overlooking the Narmada – Son Trough. It runs parallel to the Narmada Valley in an east – west direction. General elevation is 300 – 650 m. The Vindhyas are continued.eastwards as the Bharmer and Kaimur hills. The Maikala range forms a connecting link between Vindhyas and Satruras. This range acts as a watershed between the Ganga system and the river systems of the South.
  • The Satpura Range : It is a series of seven mountains running in an east-west direction south of the Vindhyas in between the Narmada and the Tapi rivers, roughly parallel to these features commencing from the Rajpjpla Hills through the Mahadev Hills, they stretch upto the Maikals range. They are regarded as structural uplift or ‘hoarst.’ Dhupgarh ( 1350 m ) near Pachmarhi on Mahadev Hills is the highest peak.
  • The Western Ghats  ( or the Sahyadris ) : The Western Ghats run in north – south direction, parallel and close to the Arabian Sea coast fro the Tapi Valley to little north of Kanniyakumari for a distance o 1600 Km. The Western Ghats are steep – sided rising as a sheer wall on their western side but slope gently on their eastern flank. Sahyadris form the real water divide of the peninsula. All the important rivers rise fro these hills and flow eastwards.
  • The northern section of the ghats from 21°N to 16°N latitudes, i.e., fro Tapi Valley to little north of Goa is made of Deccan lavas. Kalasuba ( 1,646 m ), Mahabaleshwar and Harish – chandragarh are important peaks.
  • Thalghat and Bhorghat are the important passes providing passages b road and railways between the Konkan plains and the Deccan Plateau.
  • The Middle Sahyadri runs from 16°N upto Nilgiri Hills. This part is mad of granites and gneisses. The Nilgiris mark the junction of the Wester Ghats with Eastern Ghats. Doda Betta ( 2,637 m ) is the important peak.
  • The southern part of the Western Ghats is separated from the mai Sahyadri range by Palghat Gap connecting Tamil Nadu with Kerala Anaimudi ( 2,695 m ) is the highest peak of South India. It is the nod point from which three ranges radiate in different directions- Anaimal to the North, the Palani to the north – east and the Cardamom Hills or the Ealaimalai Hills to the South.
  • The Eastern Ghats : It is a chain of highly broken and detached hil starting from Mahanadi in Odisha to Vaigai in Tamil Nadu. These are Part of the very old fold mountains. It is only in the northern part betwee Mahanadi and Godavari that Eastern Ghats exhibit true mountai character comprising Maliya and Madugutakonda ranges. South Godavari, the broken hill ranges are Nallamalai, Palkonda, Javad Shevroy and Bitigiri Rangan Hilts. Mahendragiri ( 1501 m ) is the tall peak of Eastern Ghats.

{tab=Coastal Plains and Islands}

Coastal Plains and Islands Geography of India

  • The narrow coastal strip between the edges of the Peninsular Plate and the coastline of India running for a distance of about six thousa kilometers from the Run of Kuchchh in the west to the Ganga – Brahmapu delta in the east is called the coastal plain. 

West Coastal Plains India

  • The area between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea coast stretching from the Rann of Kuchchh in the north to Kanniyakumari in the South is called the western coastal plain. It is a bit broader in the northern and southern parts but quite narrow in the middle. Average width – 65 Km.

Sub – divisions

  • The Kuchchh Peninsula : Previously an island surrounded by sea and lagoons which were later filled by sediments brought by the river Indus and thus the island became a part of the mainland. The north of Kuchchh is a salt – soaked plain called the Great Rann. It is flooded by the Banas and the Luni rivers during the rainy season. Its southern continuation is known as the Little Rann.
  • The Kathiawar Peninsula : Lying to the south of the Kuchchh, its average elevation is less than 200 m but the central part is a high / and of Mandav Hills from waere small streams radiate in all directions. Mt. Girnar ( 1,117 m ), the highest point, is of volcanic origin. The Gir Range is located in the southern part of the Kathiawar Peninsula.
  • The Gujarat Plain : It lies to the east of Kuchchh and Kathiawar slopes formed by the rivers Narmada, Tapi, Mahi and Sabarmati, the plain includes the southern part of Gujarat and the coastal areas of the Gulf of Khambat.
  • The Konkan Plain : Extends from Daman to Goa for a distance of about 500 Km. Width varies from 50 to 80 Km. It has some features of marine erosion like cliffs, shoals, reefs and islands in the Arabian Sea.
  • The Karnataka Coastal Plain : From Goa to Manga / ore. it is about 225 Km long. Average width – 30 – 50 Km. The Sharavati river drains this part making the impressive 271 m high Gersoppa ( Jog ) falls.
  • The Kerala Plain / The Malabar Plain : It extends between Manga / ore and Kanniyakumari for about 500 Km. Width : 96 Km The existence of lakes, lagoons, backwaters, spits etc. is a significant characteristic of the Kerala Coast. The backwaters locally known as Kayals are the shallow lagoons. The largest among these is Vembanad lake followed by Ashtamudi.

East Coastal Plains of IndiaGeneral Studies Question Bank CD

  • The east Coastal Plain is much wider and drier than the west and has a number of deltas. Average Width – 120 Km.
  • This plain is known as the Northern Circars between the Mahanadi and the Krishna rivers and Camatic between the Krishna and the Cauvery rivers, further South till Kanniyakumari, it is called the Coromandel Coast.

( A ) The Utkal Plain : Along the Odisha coast includes the Mahanadi Delta. The most prominent feature is the Chilka lake south of the Mahanadi delta.

( B ) The Andhra Plain : Extends up to Pulicat Lake. It comprises the deltas of Godavari and Krishna rivers. Kolleru Lake is situated between the two.

( C ) The Tamil Nadu Plain : Extends from Pulicat lake to Kanniyakumari comprising the Cauvery delta known as the granary of India.

Geography of Indian Islands

  • There are two main groups of islands in the Indian Ocean. One of them is the Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago in the Bay of Bengal and the other is a group of tiny islands known as the Lakshadweep Islands in Arabian Sea.

Geography Flora and Fauna

  • The red panda is found in the Himalayan foothills, which extend through Northeast India. India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, hosts significant biodiversity; it is home to 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.69% of all avian, 6.2% of all reptilian, 4.4% of all amphibian, 11.7% of all fish, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.
  • Many ecoregioris, such as the shola forests, exhibit extremely high rate of endemism; for example, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic India’s forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andama Islands, Western Ghats, and North – East India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya.
  • Between these extremes lie the sal – dominated moist deciduous forest o eastern India; the teak – dominated dry deciduous forest of central an Southern India; and the babul – dominated thorn forest of the Central Deccan and Western Gangetic plain,
  • Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjodaro, shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment.

Language Groups of India

  • India is the second most culturally, linguistically and genetically divers geographical entity after the – African continent.
  • India is home to two major linguistic families : Indo – Aryan ( spoken a about 74% of the population ) and Dravidian ( spoken by about 24% ).
  • Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro – Asiatic and Tibeto – Burman linguistic families.
  • Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language India. English, which is extensively used in business and administrate has the status of a subsidiary official language.
  • The constitution also recognises in particular 21 other languages that are either abundantly spoken or have classical status. The number dialects in India is as high as 1,652.

General Studies Question Bank CD
Geography of Economy

  • India is the world’s fourth largest economy in purchasing power and the 9th largest economy at market exchange rates.
  • Economic reforms have transformed it into one of the world’s fastest – growing economies, however, it still suffers from high levels of poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, and environmental degradation.
  • A pluralistic, multilingual, and multi – ethnic society, India also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety, of protected habitats.
  • The Bombay Stock Exchange, in Mumbai, is Asia’s oldest and India’s largest stock exchange. For most of its post-independence history, India adhered to a quasi-socialist approach with strict government control over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment.
  • India’s per capita income ( nominal ) is $1371, ranked 138th in the world, while us per capita ( PPP ) of US$3,339 is ranked 129th.
  • India’s literacy rate is 74% ( 65.46% for females and 82.14% for males ).
  • The state of Kerala has the highest literacy rate (94 % ); Bihar has the lowest ( 63.8% ).
  • The national gender ratio is 940 females per 1,000 males. India’s median age is 25.1, and the population growth rate of 1.41% per annum; there are 20.97 births per 1,000 people per year.

India’s Neighbours

  • The nearest neighbour in the south across the seas is Sri Lanka which is separated from India through the narrow channel of Palk Strait.
  • Similarly Eight degree channel form the boundary between Lakshadweep ( India ) and Maldive islands. National Parks of India.

Mineral and Industry

  • India produces as many as 87 minerals, which includes fuel, 10 metallic, 47 non – metalic, 3 atomic and 23 minor minerals.
  • India is the world’s largest producer of mica blocks and mica splittings.
  • With the recent spurt in the world demand for chromite, India has stepped up its production of reach the second rank among the chromite producers of the world.
  • India ranks 3rd in production of coal, lignite and barytes.
  • 4th in iron ore and bauxite and 7th in manganese ore, 8 in aluminium and 5th in crude steel in the World.

Indian Metal Scene

  • India continues to import metals such as magnesium, vanadium molybdenum, antimony, tin, tungsten, nickel and cobalt.
  • It is not a major Player in world market in iron – ore and bauxite.
  • The known copper resources are characterised by low volume, narrow width, low grade and poor precious meted content. With the exception’ of the Malanj Khand deposit ( M.R ), no deposit is amenable to low coast surface mining and high degue of modernization.
  • Fertilizer minerals, base – metals, refractory minerals, strategic minerals, noble metals, rare – metals, etc., fall under the deficit category :
  • Primary copper stock need as of July 2011 is 658164 tonnes, an increase of 89,982 tonnes from stocks at the end of December 2010.
  • India is the fourth largest exporter of iron ore in the world, after Brazil, Australia and Russia. Through the combined efforts of public sector enterprises – the National Mineral Development Corporation Limited and Kundremukh Iron Ore Company Limited and the private miners of Goa, hospet, P & radip, etc., The iron ore export in 2008 – 09 is 105.67 million tonnes and it was expected to be about 100 million tonnes in 2010 – 11,
  • India ranks 6th in production of iron ore in the world and accounts for about 6 per cent of total production. China tops the list followed by Brazil, Russia, Australia and United States.
  • Kundremukh Iron Ore company limited ( KIOCL ) a public sector undertaking of the Steel Ministry in Karnataka was established in the year 1976. It is the first fully integrated operation in India stretching fifth from ore mine in India; the first commercial exploitation of low grade iron ore and the first iron ore long distance slurry pumping operation in the country with the pipeline spanning over a stretch of 67 kms.
  • High grade iron – ore resources are limited and found mainly in Bailadila fields of Chhattisgarh and to alesser extent in Bellari Hospet area of Karnataka and Barajamada fields of Jharkhand and Odisha.

ManganeseGeneral Studies Question Bank CD

  • Main reserves fall in Karnataka, followed by Odisha, MR, Maharashtra & Goa.
  • Use in Manufacture of non – abrasive and non – corrosive steel and ferromanganese allow.
  • 90% of manganese reserves contained in Gondite and Kodurite series of Dhirwar system.


  • Bauxite resources placed 4th amongst bauxite producing countries.
  • 86% of reserves are metallurgiral grade.


  • Mines located in Jharkhand, Rajasthan, M.P and Sikkim.
  • Mines such as Khetri and Kolihan are highly mechanized underground mines. Chandmare and Malanjkhand are open pits. The later is the, largest hardrock open cast mine in the country.
  • There are two public sector smelters at Khetri and Ghatsila. They produce byproducts such as gold, silver and sulphuric acid.
  • Two smelters in the private sector are present in Tuticorin and Dahei. Smelters are being planned at Bharuch and Amroli.


  • Major reserves of limestone are found in the Cuddapah, Vindhayan and Cretaceous formation.
  • More than half of the reserves of Limestones are confined to 3 states of Karnataka, A.P and Rajasthan.


  • Occur in 3 geological setting such as krmberiite pipes, conglomerate beds and alluvial gravels.
  • The main diamond bearing areas in India are Panna belt ( MR ). Banganapalle conglomerate in Kurnool dist., Wajarakarur Kimbedite pipe in Anantpur dist. and gravels of Krishna river basin in A.P.
  • New Kimberlite fields are discovered recently in Raichur – Gulbarga districts of Karnataka.


  • Quartz veins in the Dharwar schists contain most of the country’s reserves of gold area. It is called ‘lode deposit1.
  • Gold obtained from sands of rivers are known as ‘placer deposits /
  • There are 3 important gold field – Kolar Gold fields, Ramagiri gold fields and Hutti Gold field ( only Gold producing mine ).
  • More than 70% of gold is produced from the mines of Karnataka and nearly 1 / 10th from A. R.
  • Placer deposits are produced from Jharkhand.
  • The production of Gold during August 2011 was 0.963000 tonnes.

Other Non – Metallic Minerals

  • Kerala is the largest producer of Kaolin.
  • Major producers of Gypsum are Rajasthan, J & K & TN.
  • India is the world’s leading producer of sheet mica and accounts for about 60% of world trade of mica. Important deposits of mica are in A. P, Jharkhand and Rajasthan.
  • Managampet deposits of cuddapah ( A.P ) is the single largest deposit of barites.
  • Rajasthan is the largest producer of Phosphate minerals, followed by Uttaranchal, M.R and U.R.
  • Most of the dolomite is produced from reserves located near I and S plants. Odisha ( 31.7% ) and M.R – Oihattisgarh ( 30.1 % ) together account for more than 60% of total production.

Energy and Power

  • BT : Billion tones BCM : Billion Cubic Metres mt : Million TWH : Trillion Watt Hr. Tones.
  • India ranks fifth in world in terms of primary energy consumption.
  • Coal contributes to around 28% of total global primary energy, consumption against 40% from oil, 23% from gas, 7% from Nuclear, 2% from hydro and 6% from renewable. Around 38% of total world electricity generation is based on coal.
  • In case of India, the share of coal in the supply of primary commercial energy has been about 75%. About 70% of pours graduates in India is coal and lignite bared.
  • Coal deposits occur in two geological formations, namely, the lower Gondwana formations cover 200 million years ago 7 tertiary formations about 55 million years old.
  • India now ranks 3rd amongst the coal producing countries in the world.
  • In 2030, it is expected that coal will contribute arround 51 percent to tile total primary energy supply.
  • Out of the Known 113 coalfields, 80 fields are in the lower Gondwana System, which contains 96% of total resaves and 99% of Indian Production.
  • Godwana Coalfields are found in 4 rivers valley :-

General Studies Question Bank CD

  1. Damodar valley
  2. Son valley
  3. Mahanadi valley
  4. Wardha – Godavari valley
  • Territory coal occurs in Assam, Arunachal, Meghalaya and Nagaland.
  • Lignite is found in: Neyveli ( T.N. ), Umarsar ( Gujarat ), Palana ( Rajasthan ), Nichahom ( J & K ).
  • Lignite is a low grade coal containing high – moisture and lower corbon. 88.4% ( 32 bt ) of it are contributed by the lignite basins of T.N.
  • Coalfields of the Damodar valley all the chief source of matellurgical coal in the country and most of the Iron and steel plants gets coking coal from these fields.
  • Talcher has large reserves of coal but of low grade and hence for steam and gas production.

Petroleum and Natural Gas

  • The known petroleum belt of the country are confines to the narrow belts of sedimentaly tertiary strata. This is constituted by the outer margins of the Extra Peninsula Mountains along their whole line of contact with the Peninsular block.
  • Thus the petrol ferrous areas extend from Gujarat through Punjab, Assam and thence culling Southwards, along the Arokan Chain to the bay of Bengal.
  • The Cambay – Rajasthan – Punjab Gulf has to apex at the foot of the Shimla Himalayas and extends in the south west direction through Barmer basin; in Rajasthan to the Gulf of Khombat basin.
  • Extends from much beyond Piram island to the Southern Parts of Rajasthan. The cambay basin also extends across the Rann of Kachchh.
  • The Petroliferous character of the Sir Creek highly probable and speaks of the western limits of the country’s petroliferous deposits of the Cambay basin.
  • The possibilities of gas and oil in Jammu region are high. This is particularly true along the Ravi-Jwalamukht section. Tertiary sediments buried under alluvim in Tanjore district lends support to the possibilities of occurrence of petroleum in Cauvery delta.
  • The Assam Gulf region extends along the southern side on the Brahmaputra valley and further extends along the western flank of trakanj through eastern Bengal to Akyob Guy. Digboi, Naharkatiya, Hugrijan and Moran are important oilfield in Assam gulf region. India has oil trapped in the shale and coal deposits in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The oil capacity is 240 ml of oil per year for 100 years. Its current consumption is around 3.182 million bbl / day ( 2010 ).
  • On January 2011, the Brent price hit $100 a barrel for the first time ‘ since October 2005.
  • The Krishna Godavari delta has emerged a ‘major oil and gas destination. The Reliance and ONGC finds have been followed by new gas finds by GSPC of the roder of 30 – 40 billion cubic feet. ( Reliance gas find = 13 tcf ) India is endowed with 26 sedimentary basins along with deep water sedimentary areas. The total sedimentary areas worked out to be 3014 m sq. km upto the EEZ.
  • Under the UN law of Seas, a country can explore upto 350 nautical miles off its coast, if sufficient thickness of sedimentary basin is available. The Highly prospective basins include Bombay offshore, Cambay, upper Assam, Assam – Arakan, Krishna Godavari and Cavery Basins. The low prospective ones are Malabar – Konkan, Ganga, Vindhyas and Basins. The low prospective ones are Malabar – Konkan, Ganga, Vindhyas and Bengal Basins. The domestic occurrence of crude is mainly distributed in 3 regions – Mumbai offshore ( 59% ); Gujarat ( 18% ) and Assam ( 16% ).
  • The coal and lignite seams contain varying amounts of methane depending on the rank of carbonaceous matter, the depth of berial and geotectonic setting of the basin. The commercial production of such methane is known as coal bed methane. ONGC and Modi Mckenzie has already test produced CBM in India.
  • Gas dydrates are formed when gas and water mix at high pressure and low temperature, usually at water depths of more than 800m. There are numerous potential offshore and Andaman offshore are the prominent ones.

Power Generation

  • Electricity in Villages : The over all electrification rate in India is 64.5%.
  • 35% of population is without access to electricity.
  • 80% of Indian Villages have at least an electricity line.
  • 52.5% of rural household have access to electricity.
  • As of June 2010 works in 97,940 villages have been completed and 165.79 lakh free electricity connections have been released to BPL households.
  • The revised Bharat Nirman target for RGGVY is to electricity 1 lakh villages and to provide free electricity. 13 states have declared 100% electrification of there villages. The Yet – to – be electrified are pre – dominant in Assam, Arunachal, Bihar, Jharkhand, M.P, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, U.R, Uttaranchal and W.B.
  • Wind Power : Wind is a kinetic Energy associated with the movement of large masses of air caused by South – West Monsoons. From March to August, the winds are uniformly strong over the entire Indian peninsula, except on the eastern coast. In September month, the winds weaken, and only coastal Gujarat and South Tamil Nadu experience wind speed of 15 – 20 kmph. During the lean season from Oct. to Feb. wind exceeding 10 kmph are found only in Gujarat, South TN. and Odisha – Bengal Coasts.
  • In India, the states of T.N. Gujarat, lead in the field of wind energy. At the end of March 2011, India has 14550 MW capacity wind farms.
  • The share of wind Energy in India’s total power generation capacity is slightly over 2%.
  • India now occupies the fifth place – behind Germany, U.S., Spain & Denmark – in total installed Capacity. These 5 countries account for 80% of world’s installed wind energy capacity. Wind energy continues to be the fastest growing renewable energy source.
  • India has a non – conventional energy potential of 1,95,000 MW.

Geography of Solar Energy

  • India’s location – The tropic of passes through the central part of the country.
  • Most part of the country have over 300 clear sunny days in a year.
  • Solar energy centres for rural development have been established at ( i ) Sagar island ( W. Bengal ), ( ii ) Kalyanpur ( Aligarh ), Saraisadi ( Mau – U.R ), ( iii ) Walwahan ( Maharashtra )  ( iv ) Nilurpolayan ( Coimbatore ).
  • In July 2009 India unveiled a US$19 billion plan to produce 20 GW of Solar power by 2020. Under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission.
  • The amount of solar energy produced in India is less than 1% of total energy demand.

{tab=Biomass and Bioenergy}

Geography Biomass and Bioenergy in India

  • The biobass in India available from agriculture and domestic garbage can produce 6mt of Nitrogen, 2.5 mt of phosphate, 4.5mt of potassium & 50mt of compost manute.
  • Some important centres of bio – energy production are at Gausaba, Sundarbans L ( W, Bengal ), Koonoor ( Tamil Nadu ), Tumkur ( Karnataka ).
  • Daimler Chrysler, in collaboration with University of Holneim ( Germany ) and Central Salt and Marine Cheweal Research Institute ( CSMCRI, India ) have come out with a bio – diesel alternative to conventional dtesel.
  • To start with, 5% bio – diesel would be mixed with diesel. The bio – diesel would be a non – edible oil extract from Jatropha’ and ‘Fbngamia’. The amount of blend is to be lates extended to 20%.
  • From January 1, 2006, the Oil Manufacturing Companies – IOC, BPCL, HPCL purchased bio – diesel through select purchase centres.
  • Ethanol can also be produced from wheat, iron, beet and sweet’ shorghum.
  • India’s first Bio -diesel plant opened in U.R near Kakinadoe having an initial capacity of 300 XI day.

Geography of Nuclear Energy

  • India has vast deposits of thorium accounting to about 50% of the world’s total, which is enough to generate 3,50,000 MW energy of 300 years.
  • Nuclear power contributes only 2.9% of out total power generation at present. DAE has an ambitious nuclear power programme aiming at achieving an installed Nuclear power capacity of 20,000 MW by year 2020.

Iron and Steel Industry in IndiaGeneral Studies Question Bank CD

  • India is the 5th largest producer of crude steel and is expected to become the 2nd largest produced by 2015 – 16.
  • The iron and steel industry in India is more than 1500 years old. The Iron – Pillar near Qutab – Mindr ( Delhi ) is a testimony to this fact.
  • The modem iron and steel industry was started in 1830 when a steel plant was set up at Porto – Novo in Tamil Nadu. Subsequently, steel plants were located at Beypore ( Kerala ), Coimbatore ( Tamil Nadu ), Birbbum ( W. Bengal ), and Kaladhungi ( U.R ) between 1830 – 60.
  • In 1871, Barakar Iron Works ( a pig – iron unit ) was set up at Kulti ( W. Bengal ) which was taken over by the Bengal Iron Co. In 1889, and later incorporated into the Indian and Steel Co. ( IISCO ).
  • A major breakthrough in iron and steel industry was made when the Tata Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. ( TISCO ) was set up at Sakchi ( now Jamshedpur in Bihar now Jharkhand ) in 1907.
  • In 1908, a new plant was set up at Hirapur ( W. Bengal ), and another plant was set up at Burnpur which was merged into IISCO in 1953. Mysore Iron & Steel Co. ( MISCO ) set up a plant at Bhadravati ( Karnataka ).
  • India is rich in iron ore. The iron ore deposits are located in Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and Tamil Nadu. Hence most of the iron and steel plants are located in these states.
  • Tata Iron and Steel Producing Centre, situated in Jamshedpur ( Chhattisgarh)  about 240 km north – west of Kolkata at the Kolkata – Nagpur railway line. It was the only steel plant in private sector.
  • IISCO : The three units set up at Kulti ( 1871 ), Hirapur ( 1908 ), and Burnpur ( 1937 ) are known as IISCO. These units obtain iron – ore from Singhbhum and Mayurbhanj, coal from Raniganj and Jharia, limestone from Gangpur ( Odisha ), and fresh water from Damodhar river. Cheap labour is also available.
  • Bhadravati : The Bhadravati Steel Plant ( Shirnoga Distt.) was located in Karnataka ( 1929 ). It obtains iron – ore from Kamangundi ( Kadur Distt. ) Lime – stone, manganese, and delomite are also available within 50 km reach.
  • HSL – Rourkela : The plant was set up in collaboration with firms Krupps and Damang ( Germans ) during the Second five Year Plan, and it was commissioned in 1959. The plant is located on the Kolkata – Nagpur railway line in the Sundergarh district
  • It obtains iron – ore ( hematite ) from Sundergah and Keonjhar, coal from Bokaro, Jharia, Talcher and Korba, electricity from Hirrakund. Manganese dolmite and limestone are also available in the vicinity.
  • HSL – Bhilai : The Bhilai plant was set up in collaboration with Russia on the Kolkata – Nagpur railway line in the Durg district ( Chhattisgarh ) about 250 km to the east of Nagpur ( 1959 ).
  • The plant obtains iron – ore from Dalli – Rajhara ( 96 km ), coal from Korba and Karali, Manganese from Balaghat and Bhandara. Vishakhapatnam is the seaport for export.
  • HSL – Durgapur : Durgapur Steel Plant was set up in collaboration with Britain ( 1962 ).
  • It is situated on the Damodar river in Durdwan district ( W. Bengal ) on the Kolkata – Asansol railway line about 60 km from Kolkata.
  • It obtains coal from Jharia, iron – ore from nearby, manganese from Keonjhar, limestone from Sundergarh ( Odisha ), and power from Damodar Valley Corporation ( DVC ). Kolkata is the market and sea port.
  • BSL – Bokaro : The Bokaro Steel Plant was set up in 1964 with the Soviet assistance near the Bokaro and Damodar confluence in Hazaribagh Dist. ( 1972 ).
  • It obtains coal from Jharia, iron ore from Keorjhar, limestone from Ralamau and power from DVC.
  • VSP – Vishakapatnam : This plant was set up in the 6th plan.
  • It is the first shore – based plant of India.
  • It obtains coal from Damodhar Valley region, iron – ore from Bailadela, limestone and dolomite from nearby areas. It is a seaport.
  • SSP – Salem : Salem plant was set up in Tamil Nadu in the 6th Plan.
  • It obtains iron – ore from Salem; lignite from Neyveli. U.R, and Mumbai. They are producing about 8 million tones of crude Steel.
  • Import : India imports pig – iron from Japan, Germany, Britain, USA and Belgium.
  • Export : New Zealand, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Iran, Kuwait, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, UAE, East African countries.
  • Annual export about 3.46 million tones.

Fertilizes Industry India

  • At present India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers and the seventh largest producer of phosphate fertilizers in the world.
  • The 1st fertilizer factory, was set up in 1906, but the industry made rapid growth after independence. The Sindri Fertilizer Public Sector Rant was commissioned in 1951.
  • The Green Revolution has accelerated the demands for chemical fertilizers.

National Highways in India

  • Total no. of NH is 235.
  • NH – 7 is the longest N.H. followed by N.H. 6, N.H. 5 & N.H. 151.
  • Kerala leads the states in density of roads.
  • The share of freight traffic by road is about 60% as compared to 40% by rail.
  • The length of the village road network is about 6 lakh Km. Still about 10% of villages having population of 1000 or more & 60% of villages with less than 1000 are not connected by all weather roads.
  • Shortest NH is 47A. It covers a distance of 6 km between Kudannoor and Willingdon island in Kochi, Kerala.

General Studies Question Bank CD

Pipeline Geography

  • Transportation of liquid e.g. Crude oil, water transportation of gas e.g. Natural gas.
  • The first pipeline in India was laid in Assam to bring crude oil to Noonmati which was later extended to Barauni ( Bihar ) and further to Kanpur ( U.P ) and Haldia ( W.B. ).
  • The pipeline from Salaya ( Gujarat ) supplied crude oil to Mathura Refinery ( U.R ).
  • The pipeline has been extended to Panipat ( Haryana ) & Jalandhar ( Punjab ).
  • A pipeline also connects Mumbai to Pune.

Shipping Geography


  • Currently, bulk carriers and tankers constitute around 83.5% of Indian fleet – bulk carriers 40.6% crude tankers 27.8% and product tankers 15.1% Dry cargo ships have a share of 3.7% and Container ships 1.9% of fleet.
  • India stands 17th in the Lloyd’s World fleet statistics on the basis of principal merchant fleet strength registered in these countries.
  • India has the largest Merchant shipping fleet in the developing world.
  • Approximately 90% of the Country’s trade volume ( 77% in terms of value ) is moved by sea.
  • India Fleets carries only – around 17% of country’s overseas cargo. The share of Indian flag vessels in carrying coastal ergo is 86%.
  • India does not have a contiguous territorial waters around the peninsula due to Adam’s bridge at 1.5 – 3m depth.
  • The above status entails an additional distance of 36 hours.
  • Tuticorin could emerge as transshipment hub if the Adam’s Bridge is Dredged.
  • Ports are the nerve – centres for shipping.
  • Paradeep port mainly handles export of iron ore & coal. Vishakapatnam is the deepest landlocked and protected port.
  • Ennore has been constructed to relieve pressure off Chennai and is just 25 km north of Chennai. First Corporated port.
  • Tuticorin situated in Southern Coromandel Coast. It deals with coal, salt, food grains, sugar, and petroleum.
  • India’s first International Container Transshipment Terminal is being created at Kochi.
  • India first Cruise liner and onboard training ship UM.V. AMET Majesty” was launched at Chennai on June 8th 2011.
  • The private sector accounts to about 60% of domestic air traffic.
  • The Green field Airport for Bangalore is Devanahalli.
  • Infrastructural facilities are provides by AA1. It manages 94 Civil airports including 11 international airports at Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chenffai; Thiruvananthapuram, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Goa, Amritsar, Guwahati and 28 Civil enclaves at defenee airfields.
  • Pune Lohegaon is new International Airport.
  • A new airport at Nedumbassery, Kochi has been constructed by Kochi International Airport Ltd., a company promoted by the Kerala Government with equity participation by NRIs.
  • The Ministry of Civil Aviation has formulated route dispessal guidelines to operate atleast 10% of their capacity on trunk routes category II routes such as North East, A & N, Lakshwadeep and J & K.
  • Of the more than 100 airports, 26 airports operate limited international flights.
  • Most Airports, except Cochin are owned by Govt and managed by AAI. Greenfield airports in Bangalore and Hyderabad – see Public Private Partnership. A similar project has been approved for Goa.

Sky Rail

  • A Konkan Railway innovation is a Broad Gauge double Railway line designed to negotiate mountainous terrain & sharp curves. It is similar to Sky But Metro but differs in higher load carrying capacity and diesel electric haulage.
  • The Sky Rail is seen as a part of the solution to Urban Mumbai’ transport bottlenecks and also as alternative to rail in Mountainous terrain. The first project will be from Anderi to Ghatkopa, a 8.3 Km stretch. The first Sky Bus rail Station is Madgaon, Goa.

Livestocks Geography

  • Composition of live stocks : Cattle 41 % ( Bihar and Jharkhand ), Goat 25% ( Bihar and Jharkhand ), Buffalo 19% ( Uttar Pradesh ), Sheep 12% ( Rajasthan ), Other 3% India has largest number cattle in world, but commercial cattle Highest in Brazil.
  • Number of Poultry highest in Andhra Pradesh. Cattle: Bihar + Jharkhand – Uttar Pradesh – Madhya Pradesh – Maharashtra – West Bengal – Odisha -Rajasthan – Karnataka – Andhra Pradesh.
  • Most of the good breeds are found in dry northern North – west and Southern parts of country. The humid regions generally do not support good breeds of cattle.

General Studies Question Bank CD

  • Breeds : Regions
    Gir – Saura
    Sindhi – Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra
    Red Sindhi – Sindh in Pakistan
    Shaiwal – Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi
    Deoni – North – west and Western part of Andhra Pradesh
  • Draught : Breeds
    Nag – Jodhpur ( Rajasthan ), Haryana, Uttar Pradesh ( naive )
    Bauchaur – Bihar
    Malvi – Western Madhya Pradesh
    Kenwariya – Banda ( Uttar Pradesh )
    Kherigarh – Kheri district ( Uttar Pradesh )
    Halikar. Amritmahal – Tumkur, Hasan, Mysore Solapur &
    Khillari – Solara ( Maharashtra )
    Bargur, Kanga – Coimbatore ( Tamil Nadu)
    Siri – Darjeeling and Sikkim
  • Exotic Breeds : Jersy, Holstein, Eniesian, Swiss Brown; Gurnsey, German, Feleckvich and Ayreshire.
  • Buffaloes
  • Thrives best in area of warm and humid climate.
  • Largest population of buffalo in world.
  • It is the main source of milk of provides 46% of toted milk.
  • Density of buffaloes higher in alluvial plain of North India due to availability of fodder. ( Punjab – Haryana – Uttar Pradesh ).
  • No. of buffaloes – Uttar Pradesh > Rajasthan > Andhra Pradesh > Madhya Pradesh> Gujarat> Punjab> Maharashtra.
  • Breed : Region
    Murrah – Rohtak, Hissar, Gurgaon ( Haryana )
    Bhadawni – Agra & Etwa ( Uttar Pradesh )
    Surti – Gujarat Plains
    Jaffarabadi – Gir forest of Gujarat
    Nilli Ravi – Ferozpur district of Punjab
  • Sheep
  • Most of the sheep are raised in regions which are too dry, too stony, or too mountainous to be good for agriculture or cattle.
  • Rajasthan > Andhra Pradesh > Karnataka > Tamil Nadu > Maharashtra > Jammu & Kashmir > Gujarat > Bihar > Uttar Pradesh.
  • Central Sheep breeding form – Nisar ( Haryana ). Bihar > Rajasthan> West Bengal > Uttar Pradesh > Maharashtra.
  • Goats
  • Angora or Chamba or Gaddi or Chegu or Kashmiri – Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Pashmina ( Pashmina hair aka Mohai ) – Kullu Valley Jamunapuri – between Yamuna and Chambal.
  • Beetal – Punjab
  • Mar, Mehsana. Kathawan, Zalwatti – Rajasthan. Baral, Surli, Deccani -Peninsular India.
  • Other breeds – Alpine, Nubian, Sanen.
  • Horses : Marwari, Kathiawari, Manipuri, Bhutani, Spiti, Chummarti.
    Uttar Pradesh > Bihar > Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Donkeys & Mules
    Donkeys – Rajasthan > Uttar Pradesh > Punjab.
    Mules – Uttar Pradesh> West Bengal.
  • Livestock Products
  • Milk : National Dairy Research Institute – Karnal.
  • Meat : Asia’s biggest slaughter house at Donar ( Mumbai ) – Another meat complex – Usgaon ( Goa ).
  • Hides & Skins : Uttar Pradesh > Madhya Pradesh. > Maharashtra > Bihar > West Bengal.
  • Wool : Important breeds – Bikaneri, Merino.
  • Largest producer of wool is Rajasthan.
  • Sericulture : ( i ) A highly land and labour intensive industry.
    ( ii ) India is 2nd largest silk producer after China.
    ( iii ) Bulk comes from : Andhra Pradesh > Assam > Bihar > Jammu & Kashmir > Madhya Pradesh.
  • Poultry
    India is 2nd largest producer of egg.
    Andhra Pradesh > Tamil Nadu > Maharashtra > West Bengal > Kamataka.
    Largest number of poultry and eggs from Andhra Pradesh.
  • Fisheries
    Marine : upto depth of 200 m.
  • Fresh fish production is greater than Marine fish.
  • Marine fishing is a seasonal phenomenon : Monsoon + cyclone + hinder fishing.
  • India is 3rd largest producer of fish and 2nd largest producer of inland fish.
  • Inland fish : River, Lakes, Canals, Reservoir, Ponds, Tanks, Delta, Estuanies, Channels, Backwaters, Lagoon and Coastal Lakes.
  • Fishing – 1 % of total agriculture production.
  • Marine Fisheries
  • 7517 km coastline including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep.
  • 75% of marine fish lands on West Coast and rest 25% on East Coast.
  • Continental shelf spreads over 311680 sq. km. Indian Ocean is least exploited of all the oceans.
  • “Ma Keree” – Most important fish catch ( 33% ).
  • “Prowns” – dominates fresh water aquacuhure.
  • “Shrimps” – dominates brackish water aquacuhure.
  • Marine fish – Gujarat > Kerala > Maharashtra > Tamil Nadu > Andhre Pradesh.
  • Inland / Fresh water fish – West Bengal Andhra Pradesh.
  • Total fish – West Bengal > Gujarat > Kerala > Andhra Pradesh > Maharashtra.
  • Sri Lanka is single largest market of Indian fish. Fresh water ( 34 lakhs ) fish production more than marine ( 30.10 lakhs ) water fish.

Land Utilization in IndiaGeneral Studies Question Bank CD

  • Net Sown Area ( 51% ) 90% – Punjab – Haryana.
  • Absolute – Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh. Total Cropped area with test – Uttar Pradesh.
  • Land not available for cultivation ( 14% ).
  • Land put on non – use ( village, town, tanks ).
  • Barran and Unculturable ( Wastes, Hills ).
  • Fallow land ( 8% ).
  • Current Fallow ( for 1 year ) – Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar.
  • Other Fallow ( for 2 to 5 years ) – Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra.
  • Temporarily out of cultivation.
  • Culturable Waste ( 5% ).
  • Available but not used for cultivation – Rajasthan ( Thar ) – Gujarat ( Kutchh – Madhya Pradesh – Uttar Pradesh – Maharashtra ).
  • l / 6th of total area of Goa is culturable waste. Pastures and Trees ( 4% ).
  • Permanent pastures and other grazing land – Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Kamataka, Gujarat, Rajasthan.
  • Land underwise trees crops – Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,’Kamataka.
  • Sources of Irrigation
    ( a ) Canals ( 30% )
    ( b ) Wells & Tubewells ( 56% )
    ( c ) Tanks ( 6% )
  • Canal Irrigation : Jammu & Kashmir ( 90.7% ) – Assam – Tripura -Haryana – Odisha – Mizoram, through least irrigated state in solely dependent on canals. ( An south, canal irrigation is very important in Andhra Pradesh ).
  • l / 3rd irrigation in Tamil Nadu by Caned.
  • Absolute Area – Uttar Pradesh.
  • Well and Tubewell : Gujarat ( 78.4% ) – Uttar Pradesh – Goa – Rajasthan – Punjab – Maharashtra.
  • In absolute terms – Uttar Pradesh – Rajasthan – Punjab – Madhya Pradesh – Gujarat – Bihar.
  • Tank : Significance of tank irrigation has both relatively and absolutely.
  • Largest net Irrigated Area by tank – Andhra Pradesh ( absolute ).
  • % of net Irrigated Area – Tamil Nadu.
  • Community Participation Management
    Sukhomajri village in Ambala district of Haryana.
    Sukhno lake desilting helped this village.
    Majhgawana in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh.

Geography Incredible India

India SummitDate & YearVenue
1.September 1 - 6, 1961Belgrade ( Yugoslavia )
2.October 5 - 10, 1964Cairo ( Egypt )
3.September 8 - 10, 1970Lusaka ( Zambia )
4.September 5 - 9, 1973Algiers ( Algeria )
5.August 16 - 19, 1976Colombo ( Sri Lanka )
6.September 3 - 9, 1979Havana ( Cuba )
7.March 7 - 12, 1983New Delhi ( India )
8.September 1 - 6, 1986Harare ( Zimbabwe )
9.September 4-7, 1989Belgrade (Yugoslavia)
10.September 1 - 7, 1992Jakarta ( Indonesia )
11.October 18 - 20, 1995Cartagena de Indias ( Columbia )
12.September 2 & 3, 1998Durban ( South Africa )
13.February 20 - 25, 2003Kuala Lumpur ( Malaysia )
14.July 11 - 16, 2009Sharm El Sheikh ( Egypt )
15.2012 ( to be scheduled )Tehran ( Iran )

Origin of Rivers of India
1Dr. Rajendra PrasadFirst President of India 2Dr. S. RadhakrishnanFirst Vice - President of India
3Dr. Zakir HussainFirst Muslim President of India 4Giani Zail SinghFirst Sikh President of India
5Pt. JawaharLal NehruFirst Prime Minister 6G.V. MavlankarFirst Speaker of Lok Sabha
7G.M. BalayogiFirst Dalit Speaker of India 8Justice H.J. KaniaFirst Chief Justice of India
9W.C. Bannerjee First President of Indian National Congress 10Sir S.R. Sinha ( 1832 )First Indian to become member of Viceroy's Executive Council
11Dr. Nagendra Singh BaburFirst Indian to become President of International Court of Justice
12S.H.FJ. ManekshawFirst Emperor of Mughal Dynasty
13Gen. K.M. CariappaFirst Field Marshal First Commander - in - Chief of India 14Vice - Admiral R.D. KatariFirst Chief of the Naval Staff

{tab=Lakes and Other Water Bodies}

Lakes and Other Water Bodies

15Subroto MukherjeeFirst Chief of the Air Force Staff 16Dadabhai NaorojiFirst Indian in British Parliament
17J.R.D. TataFirst Indian to make a solo air flight 18Raja Rammohan RoyFirst Indian to visit England
19J.M. TagoreFirst Bar - at - Law 20Dr. S. RadhakrishnanFirst Chairman of Rajya Sabha
21Mihir SenFirst to swim across the English Channel 22Tenzing NorgayFirst to Climb Mount. Everest
23Phu DorjeeFirst to climb Mount Everest without Oxygen 24Nwang GombuFirst Indian to climb Mount Everest twice
25Satyendranath TagoreFirst Indian to join ICS ( I.C.S. now IAS ) 26Rabindranath TagoreFirst Indian to get Nobel Prize
27Sir C.V. RamanFirst Indian to get Nobel Prize in Science 28Sqn. Ldr. Rakesh SharmaFirst Indian in Space ( first Indian cosmonaut )
29Warren HastingsFirst British Governor - General 30Lord MountbattenFirst Governor - General of Free India
31Lord CanningFirst Viceroy of India 32C.RajagopalachariFirst and the last Governor - General of Free India
33K.S. Ranjit SinghFirst Indian Test Cricketer 345Arjun SinghFirst Air Marshall
35Justice V. RamaswamiFirst Judge to face impeachment in the
Lok Sabha ( 1993 )

36Sukumar SenFirst Chief Election Commissioner
37S.H.FJ. ManekshawFirst Field Marshall 38Devi LalFirst Deputy Prime Minister
39Dr. Manmohan SinghFirst Sikh Prime Minister of India 40Wilson JonesThe first Indian to win world Billiards Trophy
41Prakash PadukoneThe first Indian to win All England 42Major RajyawardhanBadminton Championship
43Singh RathoreThe first person to win the Silver medal for shooting in 2004 Olympics 44Abhinav BindraThe first person to win the Gold medal for shooting in 2008 Olympics
45Arjun AttwalThe first Indian to win US PGA Tour Golf 46Harminder Singh ( 2010 )The first Indian to win 20 km Walk Race ( Bronze ) in Commonwealth Game
47Ashish Kumar ( 2010 )First Indian to win first medal for India in Gymnastics in Commonwealth
48Somdev Dewarman ( 2010 )Indian Who became India's first Gold Medalist in Tennis Men's Single event in Commonwealth Games
49Arjun BajpayeeYoungest Indian to Claims Mt. Everest ---

National Parks of India

  • Andaman & Nicobar Islands : Campbell Bay, Galathea, Mahatma Gandhi Marine, Middle Button Island, Mount Harriett, North Button Island, Rain Jhansi Marrine, Saddle Peak, South Button Island.

General Studies Question Bank CD

  • Andhra Pradesh : Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, Mahaver Harina Vanasthali, Mrugavani, Sri Venkateswara.
  • Arunachal Pradesh : Mottling, Namdapha.
  • Assam : Dibru – Saikhowa, Kaziranga, Manas, Named, Orang.
  • Bihar : Valmiki.
  • Goa : Mollem.
  • Himachal Pradesh : Great Himalayan, Pin Valley.
  • Jammu & Kashmir : City forest ( Salim Ali ), Dachigam, Hemis, Kistwar.
  • Madhya Pradesh : Bandhavgarh, Fossil, Kanha, Madhav, Panna.
  • Bench : ( Priyadarshini ), Sanjay, Satput, Van Vihar.
  • Chhattisgarh : Indravati, Kangerghati, Sanjay.
  • Gujarat : Bansda, Gir, Marine ( Gulf of Kachchh ), Blackbuck.
  • Haryana : Sultanpur.
  • Jharkhand : Betla.
  • Karnataka : Anshi, Bandipur, Bannerghatta, Kudremukh, Nagarahole.
  • Manipur : Keibul – Lamjao.
  • Maharashtra : Gugamal, Nawegaon, Ftench, Sanjay Gandhi ( Borivilli ), Tadoba.
  • Meghalaya : Balphakram, Nokrek Ridge.
  • Mizoram : Murlen, Phawngpui Blue mountain.
  • Nagaland : Intanki.
  • Odisha : Bhitarkanika, Simlipal.
  • Rajasthan : Desert, Keoladeo Ghana, Ranthambore, Sariska.
  • Sikkim : Khangchendzonga.
  • Tamil Nadu : Guindy, Gulf of Mannar Marine, Indira Gandhi ( Annamalai ), Mudumalai, Mukurthi.
  • Uttarakhand : Corbett, Gangotri, Nanda Devi, Govind, Rajaji, Valley of flowers.
  • Uttar Pradesh : Dudhwa.
  • West Bengal : Buxa, Neora Velly, Singhlila, Sunderbans.
  • Kerala : Eravikulam, Periyar, Silent Valley.

Geography Indian Islands

SessionYearPlaceGeneral President
1st1914KolkataAshutosh Mukherjee
2nd1915ChennaiW. B. Bannermann
3rd1916LucknowSidney J. Burrard
4th1917BangaloreSir Alfred Gibbs Bourne
5th1918LahoreGilbert T. Walker
6th1919MumbaiLeonard Rogers
7th1920NagpurPrafulla Chandra Roy
8th1921KolkataRajendranath Mukherjee
9th1922ChennaiC. S. Middlemiss Relativity
10th1923LucknowM. Visvesvaraya
11th1924BangaloreN. Annandale
12th1925VaranasiM. O. Forster
13th1926MumbaiAlbert Howard
14th1927LahoreJ. C. Bose
15th1928KolkataJ. L. Simonsen
17th1930AllahabadC. S. Christopher
18th1931NagpurR.B. Seymour Sewell
19th1932BangaloreLala Shiv Ram Kashyap
20th1933PatnaLewis L. Fermor
21st1934MumbaiMegh Nad Saha
22nd1935KolkataJ.H. Hutton
23rd1936IndoreU.N. Brahmachari
24th1937HyderabadT.S. Venkataraman
25th1938KolkataJames Jeans

General Studies Question Bank CD

Multipurpose Projects in India

RankStates / UT's DensityRankStates / UT's Density
1NCT of Delhi #11,29718Tripura350
2.Chandigarh #9,25219Karnataka319
3Puducherry #2,598*20Gujarat308
4Daman & Diu #2,16921Andhra Pradesh308
5Lakshadweep #2,01322Orissa269
6Bihar1,10223Madhya Pradesh236
7West Bengal1,02924Rajasthan201
9Uttar Pradesh82826Chhattisgarh189
10Dadra & Nagar Haveli69827Meghalaya132
11Haryana57328Jammu & Kashmir124
12Tamil Nadu55529Himachal Pradesh123
17Maharashtra36534Andaman & Nicobar Islands46
35Arunachal Pradesh17

Geography of India : Fact File
General Studies Question Bank CD

  • Largest Cave : Amarnath cave Jammu and Kashmir 50m wide and 25m high at a height of 3,800 m.
  • Coldest Place : Dras, Jammu & Kashmir – 45° celsius on December 28, 1910.
  • Highest Point : K2, Jammu & Kashmir 8,611 m.
  • Longest River : Ganga River ( 2510 km ), Catchment area ( 861,400 ), being the largest river basin as well.
  • Wettest Place : Mawsynarm, Meghalaya average annual rainfall 11,873 mm.
  • Highest Dam : Bhakra, Satluj river Punjab, 226 m.
  • Largest Desert : Great Indian Desert ( Thar Desert ), Rajasthan ( 259,000 ).
  • Hottest Place : Briyawali, Bikaner District, Rajasthan 56° Celsius on 5th June 1991.
  • Largest Riverline Island : Majuli island on river Brahmaputra, Assam has an area of 15,00
  • Largest Plateau : Deccan Plateau 1,000,000
  • Longest Canal : Indira Gandhi Nahar ( Rajasthan Canal ), ( 467 km, main canal and 215 km. feeder canal ).
  • Largest Ocean Island : Middle Andaman I. Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Longest Dam : Hirakud, Mahanadi river, Odisha, 24.4 km long. ( 4.8 km is masonry dam and remainder is earthemi dam ).
  • Highest Lake : Cho – Lhamu lake located over 18,000 feet above sea level in North Sikkim.
  • Longest Beach : Marina Beach at Chennai, Tamil Nadu stretches over 13 km and is the second largest beach in the world.
  • Southernmost Point : Indira point, Great Nicobar island, Andaman & Nicobar islands.
  • Longest Coastline : Gujarat, 1,600 km ( 26% ) of the 6,100 km coastline of Peninsular India.
  • Highest Waterfalls : Jog falls, Sharavati river, Karnataka drops 253 m in four separate falls in Raja, Rani, Rocket and Roarer.
  • Active Volcano : Barren island, Andaman & Nicobar island, central core is about 300 m high, on 10th April 1991, the Volcano excepted.


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