Invasion of Alexander in India
- Alexander ( 356 BC – 323 BC ) was the son of Philip of Macedonia ( Greece ) who invaded India in 326 BC. At that time NW India was split up into a number of small independent states like Taxila, Punjab ( kingdom of Porus ), Gandhara etc.
Except Porus who fought the famous battle of Hydaspes ( on banks of Jhelum ) with Alexander, all other kings submitted meekly.
- When Alexander reached Beas, his soldiers refused to go further, so he was forced to retreat.
To mark the farthest point of his advance, he erected 12 huge stones altars on the northern bank of Beas. Remained in India for 19 months and died in 323 BC at Babylon.
The effects of Alexander’s invasion were indirect :
- It exposed India to Europe, by opening up four distinct lines of communication, three by land and one by sea.
- Due to cultural contact, a cosmopolitan school of art came up in Gandhara.
- Paved the way for the unification of north India under Chandragupta Maurya by weakening small states.
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