Emergence of Unipolar World
1991 AD : Gulf War begins ( Jan 17 ). After freeing Kuwait Gulf war comes to an end ( Feb 28 ); Nepal goes to its first multiparty Parliamentary polls in 32 years ( May 12 ); Mikhail Gorbachov, President of USSR, is ousted in a coup by hardliners ( Aug 19 ); The Soviet coup fizzles out. Mikhail Gorbachov resumes as President of USSR ( Aug 21 – 22 ); Moscow grants independence to the Baltic States of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, ending more than 50 years of Soviet rule ( Sep 6 ); Begum Khaleda Zia is sworn – in as the first woman Prime Minister of Bangladesh ( Sep 19 ); Eleven former Soviet republics form a Commonwealth of Independent States, proclaim Soviet Union dead and give Russia the UN Security Council seat( Dec 21 ); Mikhail Gorbachov resigns as President of USSR, as the once mighty Soviet Union ceases to exist ( Dec 25 ).
1992 AD : The first – ever Security Council Summit is held at New York ( Feb. 1 ); Mauritius becomes a Republic ( Mar 12 ); Afghan President Najibullah steps down. Rebels take over power ( April 16 ); Earth Summit, held at Rio – de – Janeiro in Brazil, ends ( June 14 ).
1993 AD : The European Community’s single market plan becomes effective ( Jan 1 ); Czechoslovakia ceases to exist as a Republic. Two independent countries — Czech republic and Slovak republic are born ( Jan 1 ); Russians vote in the historic multi – party elections ( Dec 12 ); Ireland and UK sign a historic pact to pave way for ending the 25 years of terrorist violence in Northern Ireland ( Dec 15 ).
1994 AD : North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) comes into effect ( Jan 1 ); Israel and PLO sign a historic accord to give Palestinians their first taste of self – rule ( May 4 ); Nelson Mandela elected as the first black President of South Africa ( May 9 ); Israel and Jordan sign a peace accord, ending 46 years of hostility ( Oct 26 ).
1995 AD : The World Trade Organisation ( WTO ), comes into being ( Jan 1 ); Emergency ends in Ireland after 50 years ( Feb 7 ); First – ever world summit for social development held in Copenhagen ( Mar 6 ); Nuclear Non – proliferation Treaty ( NPT ) is extended indefinitely ( May 11 ); Fourth World Conference on Women opens in Beijing, China ( Sept 4 ); The UN General Assembly starts its historic 50th session ( Sept 20 ); PLO Chief Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin sign a historic accord expanding Palestinian autonomy in the West Bank and ending 28 years of Israeli occupation of Arab cities ( Sept 28 ); The Bosnian Peace Treaty is signed ( Dec 14 ).
1996 AD : PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat takes oath of office as the first Palestinian President ( Feb 13 ); The Awami League, led by Sheikh Hasina Wajed, returns to power in Bangladesh after 21 years ( June 13 ); At least 23 Americans are killed and 105 wounded in a terrorist attack at a military housing complex in Saudi Arabia ( June 26 ); A Paris – bound TWA airliner explodes after take – off from New York, killing all 229 people on board ( July 18 ); The biggest Olympics in history open in Atlanta, USA ( July 20 ); UN General Assembly adopts CTBT ( Sept 11 ); Taliban rebels enter Kabul, capital of Afghanistan, and force the government of Prof Rabbani to flee ( Sept 26 ); Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto is dismissed ( Nov 5 ).
1997 AD : Israeli troops begin pullout from Hebron thus ending 30 – year rule of Israel ( January 16 ); Nawaz Sharif returns to power in Pakistan ( Feb 4 ); The historic WTO agreement is signed by 68 nations ( Feb 16 ); A fire in Mecca during the Haj pilgrimage claims more than 200 lives ( April 16 ); China takes over Hong Kong after 156 years of British rule ( July 1 ); Princess Diana is killed in a car crash in Paris ( August 31 ); Scotland votes for its own Parliament signifying a historic break from a 300 – year old relationship with UK ( September 12 ).
1998 AD : Peace accord is reached in Ireland; Pakistan conducts five nuclear explosions ( May 28 ); US bombs terrorist targets in Afghanistan and a pharmaceutical unit in Sudan ( August 20 ); Israel and Palestinian leaders sign the Wye Peace Aecord ( Oct 24 ); Hurricane Mitch hits Honduras, killing more than 7000 people ( Nov 1 ); 13th Asian Games begin in Bangkok ( Dec 6 ).
1999 AD : Euro, the single European currency, launched ( Jan 1 ); People of East Timor vote decisively for independence from Indonesia ( Sept 5 ); Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif of Pakistan is dismissed in a coup led by Army Chief Gen Pervez Musharraf ( Oct 12 ); 50 km long Panama canal is handed over to Panama after being under US control for nearly a century ( Dec 15 ); Russian President Boris Yeltsin resigns ( Dec 31 ).
2000 AD: Vladmir Putin takes over as President of Russia in country’s first democratic transfer of power (May 7); Researchers announce completion of the working map of the human genome (June 26); The UN millennium summit begins in New York (Sept 6); Sydney Olympics open (Sept 15); George W. Bush is declared elected as the 43rd President of USA (Dec 12).
2001 AD : Space probe NEAR – Shoemaker lands on asteroid Eros; Ancient Buddha statues in central Bamiyan province of Afghanistan are destroyed by the Taliban regime ( March 2 ); Soviet – built space station Mir plunges safely into Pacific Ocean ( March 23 ); Nepal’s King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya and 12 other royal family members are massacred by Crown Prince Dipendra ( June 1 ); Gen Pervez Musharraf takes over as the President of Pakistan ( June 20 ); Missile Defence Project of USA is tested successfully ( July 15 ); Russia and China sign the first Friendship treaty between the two countries since 1850 ( July 16 ); Terrorists crash three commercial aircraft into major US landmarks — WTC in New York and the Pentagon in Washington — killing more than 6000 people ( Sept 11 ); Khaleda Zia’s BNP sweeps elections in Bangladesh ( Oct 2 ); US begins attacks against Afghanistan ( Oct 7 ). Kabul falls to the Opposition forces in Afghanistan ( Nov 13 ). Taliban regime is wiped out of Afghanistan with the fall of Kandhar ( Dec 7 ); Hamid Karzai is sworn – in as the leader of Afghanistan in the first peaceful handover of power in 28 years ( Dec 22 ).
2002 AD : Euro becomes the official currency of 12 European countries ( Jan 1 ); Sri Lanka enters into a historic ceasefire agreement with LTTE, as part of Norway’s initiative to broker peace ( Feb 21 ); The UN Security Council approves a resolution endorsing a Palestinian State for the first time ( Mar 13 ); Military rulers of Myanmar free Opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi after 19 months of house arrest; East Timor becomes the world’s newest nation ( May 19 ); Football World Cup begins in Seoul, South Korea ( May 31 ); Earth Summit opens in Johannesburg ( Aug 26 ); Chechen Islamic terrorists take up to 1000 people hostage in a Moscow theatre in Russia ( Oct 23 ). Russian special troops barge into the theatre and rescue 250 hostages. 50 militants and 90 hostages are killed ( Oct 26 ).
2003 AD : North Korea with draws from Nuclear Non – proliferation Treaty ( January 10 ); US Space Shuttle Colombia, carrying seven astronauts, including India born American Kalpna Chawla, disintegrates shortly before l anding ( February 1 ); Hu Jintao takes over as President of China ( March 15 ); Gulf War – II ( Operation Iraqi Freedom ) is launched by USA with dawn air raids on Iraq ( March 20 ). Chaos and celebrations sweep across Baghdad as the US takes control of the Iraqi capital ( April 9 ); Israel pulls out of Gaza Strip as part of a US – based peace plan ( June 30 ); Ousted Iraqi President Saddam Hussein’s sons, Uday and Qusay, are killed after a firefight with US forces ( July 22 ); NATO takes over command of the peacekeeping forces in Afghanistan, a historic move that marks the first outside Europe operation since it was created 54 years ago ( August 11 ); China becomes the first Asian country and only the third nation after US and Russia to send a manned spacecraft ( October 15 ); US coalition forces capture Saddam Hussein ( December 14 ).
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