Indian Constitutional Amendments

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Constitutional Amendments of India 2011

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Amendments of Indian Constitutional

1st Amendment, 1951 : This amendment provided for several new grounds of restrictions to the right to freedom of speech and expression and the right to practise any profession or to carry on any trade or business as contained in Article 19 of the Constitution. These restrictions related to public order, friendly relations with foreign States or incitement to an offence in relation to the right to freedom of speech, and to the prescribing of professional or technical qualifications or the carrying on by the State, etc., of any trade, business, industry or service in relation to the right to carry on any trade or business. The amendment also inserted two new Articles, 31 A and 31 B and the Ninth Schedule to give protection from challenge to land reform laws.

2nd Amendment, 1952 : Amended Article 81 with a view to readjusting the scale of representation in the House of the People, necessitated by the completion of the 1951 census.

3rd Amendment, 1954 : Substituted entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the 7th Schedule by a new one including foodstuffs, cattle fodder, raw cotton and jute as additional items whose production and supply can be controlled by the government, if found expedient in the public interest.

4th Amendment, 1955 : The Amendment provides that when the State compulsorily acquires private property for a public purpose, the scale of compensation prescribed by the authorising legislation could not be called in to question in a court. Another clause excludes the temporary taking over of a property by the State, either in public interest or to secure its better management, from the compensation clause. The amendment also operates as a saving clause for State monopolies. Seven new entries were also added to the 9th Schedule.

5th Amendment, 1955 : Empowers the President to fix a time limit for State Legislatures to express their views on proposed Central laws affecting the area and boundaries, etc. of their respective States.

6th Amendment, 1956 : Adds a new entry to the Union List in the’ Seventh Schedule relating to taxes on the sale and purchase of goods in the course of Interstate transactions.General Studies Question Bank CD

7th Amendment, 1956 : It was enacted by the Parliament in the Seventh year of the Republic. The amendment was necessitated by reorganisation of states. Part A, B, and C states were abolished. The maximum strength of Lok Sabha was fixed at 525.

8th Amendment, 1960 : Article 334 was amended with a view to extending the period of reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to the Anglo – Indian community by nomination in Parliament and in the State Legislatures for a further period of ten years.

9th Amendment, 1960 : This amended the first Schedule of the Constitution in order to give effect to the transfer of certain territories of Pakistan in pursuance of the agreements entered into between the Governments of India and Pakistan in September 1958. This amendment was necessitated in view of the Judgement of Supreme Court in “In Re Berubari Union” by which it was held that any agreement to cede a territory to another country could not be implemented by a law made under Article 3 but would only be implemented by an amendment of the Constitution.

10th Amendment, 1961 : Incorporated former Portuguese enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli within India and provided for their administration by the President.

11th Amendment, 1961 : Obviated the necessity of a joint meeting of the two Houses of Parliament by forming them into an electoral college for the election of Vice – President. It also amended Article 66 and 71 so as to make it clear that the election of the President or the Vice President shall not be challenged on the ground of any vacancy, for whatever reason, in the appropriate electoral college.

12th Amendment, 1962 : The Twelfth Amendment was passed to include the territories of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory in the First Schedule to the constitution and to empower the President to make, regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the areas.

13th Amendment, 1962 : Created Nagatand as the sixteenth State in the Indian Union. By this amendment, a new Article 371A was added to make special provisions with respect to state of Nagaland in pursuance of an agreement between Government of India and Naga People’s Convention.

14th Amendment, 1962 : Conferred necessary legislative powers on Parliament to enact laws for the creation of Legislature and Council of Ministers in Union Territories. Former French establishments of Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam were specified in the Constitution as the Union Territory of Pondicherry.

15th Amendment, 1963 : It was a minor amendment empowering the President of India, in consultation with the Chief Justice of India to make final decisions on dispute about a High Court Judge’s age. It also shortened the procedure for disciplinary action against State employees.

16th Amendment, 1963 : It sought to impose reasonable restrictions on the fundamental rights “in the interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India”.

17th Amendment, 1964 : It protected many land reform Acts passed by many State Governments. It enlarged the definition of the term ‘estate’ to include Ryotwari lands. The enforcement of certain Directive Principles of State Policy was ensured.

18th Amendment, 1966 : Provided for the linguistic reorganisation of the Punjab into a Punjabi speaking State called Punjab and a Hindi – speaking State called Haryana. It further provided that the word ‘state’ in clause ( a ) to ( e ) of Article 3 includes a Union Territory and clarified that Parliament had the power to form a new State or Union Territory by combining any part of a. State or Union Territory with any part of any other State or Territory.

19th Amendment, 1966 : Is a minor amendment clarifying the duties of the Election Commission. Article 324 was amended to effect a consequential change as a result of the decision to abolish Election Tribunals and to hear election petitions by High Courts.

20th Amendment, 1966 : Validates the appointment of certain District Judges, irregularly appointed. A new Article 233A was added and the appointments made by Governor were validated.

21st Amendment, 1967 : Provided for the inclusion of Sindhi in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution.

22nd Amendment, 1969 : Empowered Parliament to carve a new State. ( Meghalaya out of Assam ).General Studies Question Bank CD

23rd Amendment, 1969 : Provided for the extension of the reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Tribes and the nomination of members of the Anglo – Indian community for another 10 years.

24th Amendment, 1971 : Was passed by Parliament in August 1971. According to it ( i ) “not withstanding any thing contained in the Constitution, the Parliament may, in the exercise of its constituent power, amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any part of the Constitution” ( ii ) that the President must give his assent to a Constitution Amendment Bill if it has been passed by both the Houses’ and ( iii ) the Article 13 ( which provides that the state shall not make any law which takes away or abridges fundamental rights ) shall have no application to laws passed under 24th Amendment.

25th Amendment, 1971 : Was passed by the Parliament in December 1971. It aimed at ensuring that the Fundamental Rights, particularly property rights, do not stand in the implementation of Directive Principles of State Policy as embodied in the Constitution of India – The amendment bars the jurisdiction of Courts over the acquisition of property or on the ground that any such law violates Article 19 ( l )’ ( f ) of fundamental rights.

The rights of minority educational institutions guaranteed under Article 33 however remain protected. The Amendment also inserts in the Constitution a new clause – 3 / C, to provide that any legislation passed in pursuance of the directive principle’s Article 39B and C ( which concern the ownership and control of material resources and concentration of wealth and means of production ) shall not be challenged in a Court on the grounds that it takes away or abridges any of the rights contained in Articles 14, 19 or 31.

26th Amendment, 1971 : It contains three clauses. The first clause deletes the Articles 291 and 362 of our Constitution which thereto gave protection to the rights of ex – rulers to privy purses and other – privileges.

The second clause inserts Article 363 ( A ) which deprives the princes and their successors of presidential recognitions. The rights obligations and other liabilities of the Government towards them are extinguished. The third clause, amending the Article 366, redefines the term ‘ruler’ as a person who was recognised by the President as the ruler of the Indian State before the commencement of the Constitution.

27th Amendment, 1971 : Recognised North – Eastern Area Act, 1971 and established new states of Manipur, Tripura and Meghalaya and two new Union Territories of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. The Act defined their territories and made necessary provision regarding representation in Parliament and in the Legislative Assemblies of States and other matters.

28th Amendment, 1972 : Article 314 of the Constitution is deleted by this Amendment and a new Article 312 – A has been inserted to give Parliament powers to vary or revoke by law the conditions of services of officers belonging to Indian Civil Service.

29th Amendment, 1972 : This Amendment included the Kerala Land Reforms ( Amendment ) Act, 1969 and the Kerala Land Reforms ( Amendment ) Act, 1971, in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution so as to protect these Acts from judicial review.

30th Amendment 1972 : It was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 24th May, 1972. It implements the Law Commission’s recommendation according to which there should be no valuation test prescribed for declaring a case fit for appeal to the Supreme Court. The Bill seeks to amend Article 133 of the Constitution which laid down that if the value of suit exceeded twenty thousand rupees, there was an almost unrestricted right of appeal to the Supreme Court on any judgement, decree or final order in Civil proceedings of a High Court.

31st Amendment, 1973 : Increased the upper limit of elective seats in the Lok Sabha from 525 to 545.

32nd Amendment, 1973 : Implemented the 6-point programme for Andhra Pradesh.General Studies Question Bank CD

33rd Amendment, 1974 : Invalidated the acceptance of resignations by members of the State Legislatures and Parliament, which were made under duress or coercion, or any other kind of involuntary resignations.

34th Amendment, 1974 : Provided constitutional protection to 20 Land Reforms Acts passed by the various states, by including them in the 9th Schedule to the Constitution.

35th Amendment, 1974 : Provided for Associate Stare status to Sikkim.

36th Amendment, 1975 : Made Sikkim a State of the Indian Union – the 22nd State in fact.

37th Amendment, 1975 : Provided for a Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers for the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh.

38th Amendment, 1975 : The Amendment seeks to allot Sikkim one seat in the Lok Sabha and one seat in the Rajya Sabha.

The amendment will confer on the Governor of Sikkim ( a special responsibility ) for peace and an equitable arrangement for ensuring the social and economic advancement of different sections of the population of Sikkim. The provision says that in the discharge of his special responsibility under this clause “The Governor of Sikkim shall be subject to such directions as the President may give”.

39th Amendment, 1975 : By this Act, disputes relating to the election of President, Vice – President, Prime Minister and Speaker are to be determined by such authority as may be determined by Parliamentary Law. Certain Central enactments were also included in the Ninth Schedule by this Act.

40th Amendment, 1976 : Amended Act 297th and declared that “all land, minerals and other things of value underlying the ocean within the territorial waters or the continental shelf or the exclusive economic zone of India shall vest in the Union and shall be held for the purpose of the Union”.

‘The limits of the territorial waters, the continental shelf, the exclusive marine zone or other maritime zones of India shall be such as may be specified from time to time by or under any law made by Parliament”.

41st Amendment, 1976 : Raised the retiring age of State Public Service Commission members from 60 to 62. This does not affect the members of the Union Public Service Commission who retire at the age of 65.

42nd Amendment, 1976 : The Amendment Act inserted a new chapter on the Fundamental Duties of citizens and made special provisions for dealing with anti – national activities. The Judiciary provisions were amended by providing minimum number of judges to decide the constitutional validity of law and for a special majority of not less than two third majority for declaring any law to be Constitutionally invalid.

For the speedy disposal of the mounting arrears in the High Court this amendment provides a separate administrative and other tribunals to deal such matters and preserve the jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to such matters under Article 136. The main features of the Amending Act are as follows :

a) The Preamble has been altered from ‘Sovereign Democratic, Republic’ to ‘Sovereign’ Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic’ and ‘Unity of the Nation1 into ‘Unity and Integrity of the Nation’.

b) The Directive Principles of the Constitution given precedence over Fundamental Rights, wherever they came into conflict.

c) Number of seats in the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies which are based on population shall remain frozen as in the 1971 census till 2001 AD.

d) The duration of the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies is increased from 5 to 6 years.

e) Proclamation of Emergency may be made applicable to any part of the country. Similarly emergency can be lifted from any part of the country while it remains in force in other parts.

f) The duration of a Presidential proclamation taking over the government of a state shall be one year instead of six months.

g) No court can question the competence of the Parliament to amend the Constitution.

b) The Supreme Court alone can adjudicate on the validity of any Central law and the High Courts can adjudicate on the validity of the State laws. If the validity of any State law is dependent on the validity of any Central law or vice versa, then the Supreme Court can adjudicate on them. In any case, any decision on constitutional invalidity has to be made by a two – thirds majority of sitting judges where the number is not less than five. If the number of judges is less than five the judgement has to be unanimous. It is also provided that the High Courts have no power to make an interim order, where it will impede or obstruct any enquiry or action by the Government.

i) The President’s liability to act in accordance with the advice of the Council of Ministers has been made practically mandatory,

j) This amendment is called mini constitution of India.

43rd Amendment, 1977 : It provides restoration of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts, earlier curtailed by the enactment of the Constitution ( 42nd Amendment ) Act, 1976 and accordingly Articles 132A, 131A, 144A, 226A and 228A included in the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment, were deleted by this Act. It also deleted Article 31D which conferred special powers on Parliament to enact certain laws in respect of anti – national activities,

44th Amendment, 1978 : This Amendment brought a lot of changes in many Articles. The preventive detention for a period of more than two months can be ordered only on the recommendations of an Advisory Board. The right to property was omitted as a fundamental right and made as a. legal right. But minorities will have rights to establish or run their educational institutions as before.

45th Amendment, 1980 : It aims to extend the reservation for scheduled castes and tribes as well as for the Anglo-Indians for ten more years from 1st January, 1980 to 31st December, 1989.

46th Amendment, 1982 : The bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 3rd April, 1981 and the same was passed by Lok Sabha on 14th July, 1982. If seeks to insert an entry in the Union List in the Seventh Schedule to enable Parliament to levy tax on inter – state consignment of goods.

47th Amendment, 1984 : This amendment provides for the inclusion of certain land reforms acts in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution with a view of obviating the scope of litigation hampering the implementation process of those acts.

48th Amendment, 1984 : This was an Amendment to Clause 5 of Article 356 of the Constitution for the continuation of President’s Rule in Punjab for one more year.

49th Amendment, 1984 : The Government of Tripura recommended that the provisions of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution may be made applicable to the tribal areas of that state. The amendment involved in the Act is intended to give a constitutional security to the autonomous District Councils functioning in the state.

50th Amendment, 1984 : It brings, apart from the armed forces, other forces connected with the administration of public property, persons in the intelligence departments and telecommunication department connected with this duty into the ambit of Article 33 of the Constitution with a view to maintain discipline among these people and ensure proper discharge of their duties.

51st Amendment 1984 : Amendment for Article 330 provides reservation of seats for STs in Meghalaya, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram in Parliament, and that of Article 332 for local tribal people for Nagaland and Meghalaya Legislative Assemblies.

52nd Amendment, 1985 : The Amendment effected by a Bill popularly called Anti-Defection Bill, was to curb defection by disqualification. The following are. the salient features of the Act :

A member of Parliament, or State Legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified to be a. member of that House

( a ) if he has voluntarily given up his membership of such political party or ( b ) if he votes or abstains from voting in such House contrary to any direction issued by the political party to which he belongs or by any person or authority authorised by it in this behalf without obtaining in either case, a prior permission of such political party, person or authority, and if such voting or abstention has not been condoned by such political party, person or authority within 15 days from the date of such voting or absenting.

53rd Amendment, 1986 : Inserted a new article ( 371 – G ) conferring full statehood on Mizoram.General Studies Question Bank CD

54th Amendment, 1986 : Amended Part – D of the 2nd schedule giving effect to the increase of salaries of the Chief Justice and Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts. And enabling provision for changes in the salaries of judges in future by Parliament by law, was made in Articles 125 and 221.

55th Amendment, 1986 : Conferred full statehood on Arunachal Pradesh and for this purpose, a new Article 371H has been inserted which, inter alia, confers, having regard to the sensitive location of Arunachal Pradesh to vest special responsibility on Governor. The new Article also provides that the new Legislative Assembly shall consist of not less than thirty members.

56th Amendment, 1987 : With – this Amendment a new state of Goa is created. Parts of Daman & Diu of the erstwhile Union Territory of Goa, Diu and Daman were separated and formed into the new Union Territory.

57th Amendment, 1987 : As the 51st Amendment could not be implemented properly, 57th Amendment was introduced for special arrangement in the reservation for Scheduled Tribes in the State assemblies of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya, until readjustment of seats on the basis of the first census after 2000 AD.

58th Amendment, 1987 : The Constitution has been amended to empower President of India to publish under his authority the translation of the Constitution in Hindi signed by the Members of the Constituent Assembly with such modification as may be necessary to bring it in conformity with the language, style and terminology adopted in the authoritative texts of Central Acts in Hindi language.

59th Amendment, 1988 : Gives the power to declare emergency for a period upto 3 years in Punjab due to internal disturbance; but extended only for 2 years.

60th Amendment 1988 : The Act amends Clause ( 2 ) of Article 276 of the Constitution so as to increase the ceiling of taxes on professions, trades, callings and employment from two hundred and fifty rupees per annum to two thousand and five hundred rupees per annum. The upward revision of this tax will help the State Government in raising additional resources. The provision to Clause ( 2 ) has been omitted.

61st Amendment, 1989 : It lowers the voting age from 21 to 18 to give wider representation and involve the present day literate youth, in the mainstream of political life of the nation.

62nd Amendment, 1989 : It seeks to extend the privileges and reservation of seats in Lok Sabha and State assemblies for Scheduled Castes and Tribes for another 10 years from 31st December, 1989.

63rd Amendment, 1989 : Repealed the 59th Amendment which gave special powers to the government to impose emergency in Punjab.

64th Amendment, 1989 : President’s Rule in Punjab was extended by another 6 months thus totalling it upto 3 years and 6 months.

65th Amendment, 1990 : To set up a National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Tribes, with powers of a civil court, in the exercise of its duties.

66th Amendment, 1990 : On 1st June, Parliament gave its approval to the Constitution ( 66th Amendment ) Bill. It seeks to bring all land reforms laws enacted by different States into the Ninth Schedule and thus protecting them from litigation.

67th Amendment, 1990 : Extension of President’s Rule in Punjab by another 6 months.

68th Amendment, 1991 : Extension of President’s Rule in Punjab by one more year ( Total 5 years ).

69th Amendment, 1991 : Delhi became a City State with a Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers getting a special status among the Union Territories.

70th Amendment, 1992 : The elected members of Pondicherry and the National Capital of Delhi were included in the electoral college.

71st Amendment, 1992 : To include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali language in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution.

72nd Amendment, 1992 : Provision was made to determine the number of seats reserved for STs in the Assembly of the State of Tripura.

73rd Amendment, 1993 : To add a new part for ensuring direct election to all seats in Panchayats, for the reservation of seats for SC’s and STs in proportion to their population and for the reservation of not less than 1 / 3 of the seats for women.

74th Amendment, 1993 : To ensure effective functioning of the Urban Local Bodies, a new part IX – A relating to the Municipalities has been incorporated in the Constitution to provide for among other things; Constitution of three types of Municipalities, i.e., Nagar Panchayats for areas in transition from a rural area to Urban area, Municipal Councils for smaller Urban areas and Municipal Corporations for larger urban areas.

75th Amendment, 1993 : Provides for the establishment of State level tribunals to settle landlord-tenant cases and also provides for the reduction of tiers of all courts except Supreme Court relating to rent litigation.

76th Amendment, 1994 : This amendment places the Tamil Nadu Bill of Reservation within the purview of the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution. The government of Tamil Nadu reserves 18% to Scheduled Castes, 1% to Scheduled Tribes and 50% to Other Backward Castes ( total 69% ) in educational institutions and public employments. This has received the President’s assent.

77th Amendment, 1995 : Makes provision for reservation in matters of promotion in any class or classes of posts in services in State in favour of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which in the opinion of the state are not adequately represented in the service in a state.

78th Amendment, 1995 : Inserts certain state laws in respect of land reforms in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution.

79th Amendment, 1999: Extends reservations for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies till 25th January, 2010.

80th Amendment, 2000 : Relates to the revenue sharing between the Centre and the States whereby States’ overall share was increased to 29% as per the Tenth Finance Commission’s recommendation.

81st Amendment, 2000 : Relates to carrying forward backlog vacancies of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

82nd Amendment, 2000 : Relates to relaxation in qualifying marks and reservation of posts in super specialty courses in Medical and Engineering disciplines, etc. for SC / ST etc. ( Both 81st and 82nd amendments were made in supersession of Supreme Court’s judgments ).

83rd Amendment, 2000 : Relates to the reservation of seats under Panchayat Raj in Arunachal Pradesh.

84th Amendment, 2000 : Relates to the creation of new States of Jharkhand, Chattisgarh and Uttaranchal.

The parliamentary system of government, both at the Centre and in the States in India is based on adult franchise whereby all citizens of India who are not less than 18 years of age and are not disqualified under the Constitution or any law made by the appropriate legislature on certain grounds like non-residence, unsoundness of mind, crime, illegal or corrupt practices, have the right to be registered as voters in any election to the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies of the States.

89th Amendment Bill, 2000 : The Bill passed by Parliament on 16th May, 2000, provides for the transfer of 29% share of net tax proceeds to States for a five – year period and seeks to bring several Central taxes and duties like Corporation Tax and Customs Duty at par with personal income – tax for the purpose of sharing with the States.

93rd Amendment Bill, 2001 : Union Cabinet approved the Constitution ( 93rd Amendment ) Bill, 2001 on 20th September, 2001. It seeks to provide free and compulsory education for the children aged 6 to 14 across the country.

94th Amendment Bill, 2003 : Lok Sabha passed the Constitution Bill ( 94th Amendment ) paving the way for setting up a separate national commission for Scheduled Tribes ( STs ).

95th Amendment Bill, 2003 : Empowering the Centre to levy service tax and allow both the Centre and the States to collect and appropriate service tax.

96th Amendment Bill, 2003 : The Lok Sabha unanimously approved it on 6th May, 2003. It seeks to provide for readjustment of electoral constituencies, including those reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes on the basis of the population census for the year 2001 without affecting the number of seats allocated to States in the Legislative bodies.

97th Amendment Bill, 2003 : It seeks to strengthen the Anti – Defection Law and limit the size of the Council of Ministers to 10 per cent of the respective strengths of Parliament and the State legislatures.

98th Amendment Bill, 2003 : The Constitution 98th Amendment Bill seeks to constitute a National Judicial Commission ( NJC ) by including Chapter IV – A in Part V of the Constitution which will be in charge of appointing judges to the higher judiciary and for transferring High Court Judges. The bill also seeks to empower the National Judicial Commission to draw up a code of ethics for judges, inquire into cases of misconduct or deviant actions of a judge other than those that are punishable with his or her removal, and advise the Chief Justice of India or Chief Justice of High Court appropriately after such inquiry.

99th Amendment Bill, 2003 : It seeks to protect the rights of the non – tribals in the newly-elected Bodo Territorial Council ( BTC ) by keeping intact – the existing representation of the Scheduled Tribes and non-Scheduled Tribes in the Assam Legislative Assembly from the Bodoland Territorial Council Areas district.

100th Amendment Bill, 2004 : This amendment has inserted Bodo, Dogri, Maithli and Santhali in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution; when this Act is- enforced the 8th Schedule will have 22 languages. Jharkhand – Bodo, and Santhali; Dogri is spoken in Jammu and Kashmir. Maithili is spoken in Bihar. The President gave assent on 2nd January, 2004.

Constitution ( 104th Amendment ) Bill, 2005 : The Parliament passes the Constitution ( 104th ) Amendment Bill proclaiming reservation for the socially and educationally backward classes, besides the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, in private unaided educational institutions.

Constitution ( 107th Amendment ) Bill, 2007 : The Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council wants the Darjeeling hill areas to be given tribal areas status ( in sixth schedule ).

Constitution ( 108th Amendment ) Bill : Popularly known as ‘Women’s Reservation Bill was passed by Rajya Sabha on 09.03.2010 – It has not yet been passed by Lok Sabha. It seeks to reserve one – third of all seats for women in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies. Certain political parties demand that the Bill must have reservation inside reservation for SC & ST women. The Bill further says that the reservation shall cease to exist after 15 – years from the commencement of the Act. It is pending.

Constitution ( 109th Amendment ) Bill : The Bill extends the reservation to SCs & STs for another 10 years. In the Article 334, the word ‘sixty’ will be replaced by seventy’. It was assented on 18th January, 2010.

Constitution ( 110th Amendment ) Bill : This Bill seeks to amend the Article 243 – D to enhance the quota for women from one – third to one – half of the total seats in the Panchayats. It is pending.

Constitution ( 111st Amendment ) Bill : This Amendment seeks to include a new Directive Principle of State Policy. “The state shall endeavour to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies.” It is pending.

Constitution ( 112nd Amendment ) Bill : This Bill seeks to amend many clauses of Article 243 – T providing for reservation of seats for SCs & STs and for women in Urban Local Bodies. It was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 24th November, 2009. it is pending.

Constitution ( 113rd Amendment ) Bill : This amendment seeks to change the name of the language mentioned in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India from ‘Oriya’ to ‘Odia’

{tab=Constitution Schedule}

Schedule to the Constitution

First Schedule : ( Under Articles 1 and 4 ) gives a list of the States and Territories comprising the Union.

States : 1. Andhra Pradesh 2. Assam 3. Bihar 4. Gujarat 5. Kerala 6. Madhya Pradesh 7. Tamil Nadu 8. Maharashtra 9. Karnataka 10. Odisha 11. Punjab 12. Rajasthan 13. Uttar Pradesh 14. West Bengal 15. Jammu and Kashmir 16. Nagaland 17. Haryana 18. Himachal Pradesh 19. Manipur 20. Tripura 21. Meghalaya 22. Sikkim 23. Mizoram 24. Arunachal Pradesh 25. Goa 26. Chattisgarh 27. Uttarakhand and 28. Jharkhand.

Union Territories :

  • Delhi
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Lakshadweep
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  • Daman and Diu
  • Puducherry
  • Chandigarh.

Second Schedule : [ Under Articles 59 ( 3 ), 65 ( 3 ), 75 ( 6 ), 97, 125, 148 ( 3 ) 158 ( 3 ) ] consists of 5 parts, A to E.

Part A – fixes the remuneration and emoluments payable to the President and Governors. Part B – has been deleted by the Constitution Act of 1956; Part C – contains provisions as to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council. Part D – contains provisions as to emoluments of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts. Part E – contains provisions as to the Comptroller and Auditor General of India. Salary 90,000 per month. (The salaries have been revised since by Amendments to the Constitution).

Third Schedule : [ Under Articles 75 ( 4 ), 99,124 ( 6 ), 148 ( 2 ), 164 ( 3 ), 188 and 219 ] contains forms of Oaths and Affirmations.General Studies Question Bank CD

Fourth Schedule : [ Under Articles 4 ( 1 ) and 20 ] allocates seats for each State and Union Territory, in the Council of States.

Fifth Schedule : [ Under Article 224 ( 1 ) ] provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas. This schedule provides for amendment by a simple majority of Parliament and takes it out of the ambit of Article 368 ( Amendment of the Constitution ).

Sixth Schedule: [ Under Articles 214 ( 2 ), and 275 ( 1 ) ] provides for the administration of Tribal Areas in Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram. This is a lengthy schedule which goes into the details of the administration in the Tribal Areas concerned. This schedule can also be amended by a simple majority of the Parliament.

Seventh Schedule : [ Under Article 246 ] gives three Lists : ( a ) Union List containing 99 subjects in which the Union Government has exclusive authority ( b ) State List containing 66 subjects which are under the exclusive authority of State Governments and ( c ) Concurrent List containing 52 subjects, where the Union and States have concurrent powers.

Eighth Schedule : [ Under Articles 344 ( 1 ) and 351 ( 1 ) ] gives a list of 22 languages recognised by the Constitution : 1. Assamese 2. Bengali 3. Gujarati 4. Hindi 5. Kannada 6. Kashmiri 7. Malayalam 8. Marathi 9. Oriya 10. Punjabi 11. Sanskrit 12. Sindhi 13. Tamil 14. Telugu 15. Urdu 16. Manipuri 17. Konkani 18. Nepali 19. Bodo 20. Dogri 21. Mythili and 22. Santhali languages are also included in this schedule by 100th Amendment in 2000.

Ninth Schedule : [ Under Article 31 ( b ) ] was added by the Constitution ( First Amendment ) Act, 1951. It contains Acts and orders relating to land tenures, land tax, railways, industries, etc., passed by the State Governments and the Union Government which are beyond the jurisdiction of civil courts.

Tenth Schedule : [ Under Articles 101, 102, 191, 192 ] It contains the Anti – defection Act.

Eleventh Schedule : [ Under Article 243 G ] It deals with Panchayat Raj system in India.

Twelfth Schedule : It mentions three types of municipalities – Nagar Panchayats for transitional areas, Municipal Councils for smaller urban areas and Municipal Corporation for large urban areas.
General Studies Question Bank CD

Party Politics in India

At the dawn of Independence, there were only two Political Parties – the Indian National Congress and the Communist Party of India. Soon came the proliferation that as many as 77 parties contested in the 1952 General Elections.

The Communist Party split up into two in 1964; namely, the Communist Party of India and the Communist Party ( Marxist ). The most important development occurred in 1969 was that the Congress Party split up into two – the party led by Mrs. Indira Gandhi and the party led by Mr. Nijalingappa. In the 1971 elections the Congress party under Mrs. Gandhi won a massive majority in the Lok Sabha with 356 seats. The Nijalingappa’s party won only 16 seats.

Another important development in the recent years was the formation of Bharatiya Lok Dal ( BLD ) in 1974 by the merger of seven parties. In 1977 General Elections, the Congress Party was offered a challenge under the united opposition led by late Jayaprakash Narain. The opposition United Front known as Janata Party won the elections with 296 seats.

National Party

A political party is recognized as a National Party when either the candidates set up by it, in any four or more States, at the last General Election to the House of the people, or to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned, have secured not less than six per cent of the total valid votes polled in their respective States at the General Election; and in addition, it has returned at least four members to the house of the people at the aforesaid last General Election from any State or States; Or its candidates have been elected to the House of the People, at the last General Section to that house, from atleast two per cent of the total number of Parliamentary Constituencies in India.General Studies Question Bank CD

Mr. Morarji Desai became the Prime Minister on 24th March, 1977. However, internal wrangles started surfacing. Mr. Charan Singh withdrew his support to Mr. Desai. So, Mr.Desai was obliged to resign in July 1979. Charan Singh and his supporters formed a new party called Janata ( Secular ) and formed a new ministry. Mr. Charan Singh had to fall back on Mrs. Gandhi’s support to maintain the requisite majority. Mrs. Gandhi withdrew the support on 20th August, 1979 and the Charan Singh ministry fell. In the 1980 elections, Mrs.Gandhi came back to power and her party became popularly known as Indira Congress or Congress ( I ). In July 1981, the Election Commission recognised Congress ( I ) as the legitimate successor to the old Indian National Congress. After the assassination of Mr. Rajiv Gandhi in 1991, Congress President Mr. Narasimha Rao came to power.

During his tenure Mr. Aijun Singh and Mr. N.D. Tewari were expelled out of the party for their anti – party activities. After the fall of the Congress Party in the Eleventh General Election 1996, Mr. Seetharam Kesari became the Congress President. In 2004 elections, Congress came back to power under the Prime Minister, Dr.Manmohan Singh. But now Mrs. Sonia Gandhi has taken over the leadership of the party. The old Janata Party has split up with Mr. Chandrasekar as the President of the new Janata. The Lok Dal – the original splinter party started by Mr.Charan Singh was now split up into Lok Dal ( A ) and Lok Dal ( D ). Lok Dal ( A ) was led by Ajit Singh and the other one by Mr.Devi Lai. Lok Dal ( A ) merged with the Janata Party with Mr.Ajlt Singh as the President of the party. The Jana Sangh has gathered strength under a new banner, the Bharatiya Janata Party with Mr. L.K. Advani as President.

State Party

A political party is recognized as a State Party, if and only if, either the candidates set up by it, in the last General Section to the House of the People, or to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned have secured not less than six per cent of the total valid votes polled in that State, in that General Election; and in addition, it has returned at least two members to the Legislative Assembly of the State at the last General Election to the Assembly; or it wins at least three per cent of the total number of seats in the Legislative .Assembly of the state.

The BJP President Mr. L.K. Advani who had succeeded Mr. Venkaiah naidu who resigned to accept the moral responsibility of the 14th General Elections, 2004, in which their party defeated while the Congress Party won the majority. Mr. Rajnath Singh became BJP Party President on 2-1-2006 succeeding Mr. LK. Advani to end the controversy that started in 2nd June, 2005 in the Sang Parivar after Mr. Advani made the controversial remark that Pakistan founder Mohamed Ali Jinnah was secular. Mr. Rajnath Singh is reelected BJP president for a full term untill December 2009. Nitin Gadkari was formally elected as BJP Party President on 9th February, 2010. On 23rd February, 2010, Ms. Susma Swaraj elected as First Woman Opposition Party Leader in Lok Sabha.

{tab=General Elections}

General Elections

The General Elections to the Parliament as well as to State Assemblies were held simultaneously till 1970. In 1971, this policy was given up. The – national and state elections were held separately. Although no explanation was offered for this departure in policy, it was probably the clash of interests between national and state parties that prompted this change.

First General Election, 1952 : The First General Election was held in 1952. The Congress won with massive majority.

Second General Election, 1957 : At the Second General Election, the Congress secured 371 out of 494 elective seats in the Lok Sabha.

Third General Election, 1962 : Out of 494 Parliamentary seats, the Congress won 361.

Fourth General Election, 1967 : At the Fourth General Election, the performance of Congress party was comparatively poor. It secured only 283 seats out of 520.

Fifth General Election, 1971 : This was a mid – term election; the Lok Sabha having been dissolved on 27th December, 1971 one year and two months before the expiry of the full period. The Ruling Congress, under Mrs. Indira Gandhi, swept the polls and came out with a massive majority of 350 out of 518 elective seats in the Lok Sabha.General Studies Question Bank CD

Duration of the Fifth Lok Sabha : On 26th June, 1975, the President declared an emergency. This emergency – was lifted only after the results of the Sixth General Section were announced, namely on 22nd March, 1977.

Sixth General Election, 1977 : The Sixth General Election ( March 1977 ) brought the Janata to power. Janata won more than 296 seats in a total of 542, a clear majority while the Congress could muster only 153 seats.

Seventh General Election, 1980 : The Seventh General Election ( January 1980 ) returned Indira Gandhi to power again with a two – thirds majority in the Lok Sabha.

Eighth General Election, 1985 : Polling was held on 24, 27 and 28th December, 1984 in 508 constituencies. 401 seats were won by the Congress under Mr. Rajiv Gandhi.

Ninth General Election, 1989 : The Ninth General Election was held on 24th and 27th November, 1989 in 528 constituencies. The Ruling Congress ( I ) Party lost power. The Opposition alliance [ The National Front composed of BJR Janata Dal and CPI ( M ) ] got the majority of 310 seats.

The Janata Dal headed by V.R Singh which won 141 seats formed the government with outside support of Bharatiya Janata Party, some regional parties, and leftist parties. Due to internal frictions, the government lasted only for 11 months. Eventually it was voted out of power by a confidence motion in Parliament on 7th November, 1990.The rival faction of Janata Dal headed by Mr. Chandra Sekhar, formed the government with the Congress ( I ) promising outside support. But it too lasted only for four months. On withdrawal of latter’s support, the Chandra Sekhar government resigned on 6th March, 1991. So inevitably, schedule for fresh poll was announced on 17th March, 1991.

Tenth General Election, 1991 : In the polls the Congress ( I ) secured single party majority. In June, an elected government under Mr. P.V Narasimha Rao was formed. Inspite of many trials and tribulations, his government continued to remain in power.

Eleventh General Election, 1996 : The eleventh Lok Sabha constituted on 15th May, 1996 after the General Election to the Lok Sabha in which 590 million voters cast their vote to elect 543 members was a verdict against the Congress – I in power. None other parties, Bharatiya Janata Party or National Front, Left Front combine could reach anywhere near the striking distance of an absolute majority.General Studies Question Bank CD

As a result a 21 member, five party coalition government of the United Front, headed by Mr. H.D.Oeve Gowda was sworn in New Delhi on June 1996 replacing Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee who could not prove the majority and resigned despite the fact, BJP had more number of M.Ps than any other single party. But within a span of 10 months Mr.Deve Gowda had to vacate the Prime Ministerial post due to political friction and Mr. I.K.Gujral of United Front became the twelfth Prime Minister of India on 21st April, 1997. Consequent upon the withdrawal of Congress support after the interim report of the Jain Commission was submitted, the President was advised to dissolve Lok Sabha and fresh elections were to be conducted in February / March 1998.

Twelfth General Election, 1998 : The twelfth general elections which were unfortunately thrust upon the people who were already reeling under economic recession were held in three phases in February 1998. The back lustre attitude of the voters was reflected in the poor voter turnout of about 55%. The remarkable feature of this election was unexpected victories and defeats from invariably all states. The B.J.R lost heavily in Maharashtra, Rajasthan, the ruling D.M.K. gave away to its arch rival AIADMK in Tamil Nadu, in Assam the ruling AGP lost its face. Even in West Bengal, Trinamul Congress fared better.

The Congress could not win even a single seat in U.R, though it improved in Western region owing to Sonia factor. Even after spending 1000 crores of rupees public exchequer, as in 1996 no party could secure clear majority. Hectic parleys were held in the post election period among various pre – election rivals. The final tally in the 543 member Lok Sabha was BJP and its allies could not cross 272 mark ( 251 ). The Congress and its allies scored 166, the United Front 95 and others 19. Again the elections paved the way for hung Parliament. However, the BJP formed the government in March 1998 with Mr. A.B. Vajpayee as Prime Minister with the support of its electoral allies and the issue based support offered by Telugu Desam of Mr. Chandrababu Naidu.

The fate of much pressured coalition government headed by Mr. A.B. Vajpayee was sealed on 17th April, 1999 when it lost the confidence of Lok Sabha by one vote, after AIADMK withdrew its support. Though the splinter groups and other opposition parties including Congress which had a strength of 140 members in Lok Sabha were united to dismiss BJP led government, there was no cohesion in forming the alternate government at the centre. The President was left with no other alternative than dissolving the Lok Sabha and ordering elections for 13th Lok Sabha costing the government exchequer several crores of rupees.

13th General Election 1999 : The 13th General Election held from 5th September to 3rd October, 1999 in 5 phases. BJP and its allies ( NDA – National Democratic Alliance ) brought a clear victory by winning 294 seats. The Congress and its allies secured 131 seats, the Left Front and allies scored 42 and others 64. On 13th October, 1999, Mr. A.B. Vajpayee, under his Prime Ministership formed the BJP Government. The results announced from Bihar, U.P, Karnataka, Arunachal Pradesh and Maharashtra were quite contrary to the expectations of BJP and Congress. Assembly elections for Karnataka, Maharashtra, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Andhra Pradesh were also held.

14th General Election 2004 : The 2004 elections proved to be a disaster for the NDA, with the BJP – led alliance falling short of the 200 mark. The Congress, with 145 seats, emerged as the single largest party, gaining ground across the country and staked its claim to form the next government. The Left parties also registered their best performance in recent elections. The elections were held between 20th April and 10th May, 2004 in four phases. As per final results of 539 seats, the BJP alliance took 185 ( BJP on its own got 138 seats ), while Congress and its allies surged ahead in 217 seats, the Left in 60 and others in 77.

15th General Election 2009 : The 15th General Elections were held from 16th April to 13th May, 2009 in 5 phases. Congress and its allies ( UPA – United Progressive Alliance ) brought a clear victory by winning 262 seats. ( Congress – 206, Trinamul Congress – 19. DMK – 18, Nationalist Congress Party – 9, Others – 10 ). The BJP and its allies secured 127 seats. ( BJP – 116, Shiv Sena – 11 ). Third Front Parties : CPI ( M ) – 17, Biju Janata Dal – 14, AIADMK – 9, Telugu Desam – 6. On 22nd May, 2009, Dr. Manmohah Singh, under his Prime Ministership formed the UPA Government. Assembly elections for Sikkim, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh were held also.
General Studies Question Bank CD

RankStates / UT'sDRGRankStates / UT'sDRG
1Dadra & Nagar Haveli55.519Chandigarh #17.1
2Daman & Diu #53.5420Assam16.93
4Puducherry #27.7222Tamil Nadu15.6
5Arunachal Pradesh25.9223Tripura14.75
7Jammu & Kashmir23.7125West Bengal13.93
9Chhattisgarh22.5927Himachal Pradesh12.81
11Rajasthan21.4429Andhra Pradesh11.1
12NCT of Delhi #20.9630Goa8.17
13Madhya Pradesh20.331Andaman& Nikobar Islands6.68
14Uttar Pradesh20.0932Lakshadweep #6.23

Dover Lane Music FestivalKolkattaJanuary
Eastwind Music FestivalNew DelhiFebruary
Fireflies Festival of Sacred Music ( Previously known as Bhoomi Jathre )
Harballabh FairJalandharDecember
Kalasagaram Annual Cultural Festival of Music, Dance and DramaSecunderabad
November / December
Kuthira MalikaTrivandrumJanuary
Madras Music SeasonChennaiDecember
Pandit Motiram Pandit Maniram Sangeet SamarohHyderabadNovember
Parambara Series - AndhriHyderabadNovember
Qutub FestivalDelhiNovember / December
Rock EthosBengaluruLaunched in 2008
Saptak Festival of MusicAhmedabadJanuary
Sawai Gandharva Music Festival PuneDecember
Swati SangeethotsavamTrivandumJanuary
Thyagaraja AradhanaTiruvaiyaru ( Tamil Nadu )January / February

General Studies Question Bank CD

Jurisdiction and Seats of Higher Judicial Tribunals in India

RanksDate / Time
1 - 1000June, 2014
1001 - 2009June, 2014

{tab=Important Articles}

Important Articles of Indian Constitution

Article 52 : States that there shall be a President of India.

Article 53 : Executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President

Article 56 : Term of the office of the President.

Article 58 : Qualifications of President

Article 59 : Conditions of President’s Offices.

Article 61 : President can be removed from office by impeachment.

Article 63 : States that there shall be a Vice – President.

Article 64 : Vice – President shall be the Ex – Official Chairman of the Council of States.

Article 65 : Duties of Vice – President.

Article 66 : Election of Vice President by an electoral college which consists of all the members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.General Studies Question Bank CD

Article 67 : Terms of the Office of Vice – President.

Article 71 : Disputes relating to Presidential election shall be I decided by Supreme Court.

Article 75 ( 3 ) : The council of ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha and individually responsible to the President.

Article 75 ( 5 ) : There is no legal bar that a minister must be a member of parliament, ( six months )

Article 79 : The Parliament of India consist of the President and the two Houses.

Article 80 : The Rajya Sabha, “the Council of States” consists of not more than 250 members. ( 12 nominated ), ( 238 elected ) ( At present – 245 members )

Articles 81 & 331 : Provide the composition of Lok Sabha. ( The maxi­mum strength of Lok Sabha is 552, at present 545 ).

Article 85 : President summons the Houses of Parliament and prorogues either House and dissolve the Lok Sabha.

Article 89 ( 1 ) : Vice – President of India is the ex – officio chairman of Rajya Sabha. He presides over the proceedings of Rajya Sabha.

Article 89 ( 2 ) : The Deputy Chairman is elected by Rajya Sabha from amongst its members.

Article 90 : The Deputy Chairman may be removed from his office by a resolution of the Council of States passed by a majority of all the then members. ( 14 days notice ).

Article 109 : If there is a question over the validity of money bill the decision of the speaker of the Lok Sabha is final.

Article 110 : A Money Bill is defined clearly in this article.

Article 111 : After the money bill is passed by the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha it is presented to the President, who unlike in the case of other Bills has no right to withhold it.

Article 112 : The President shall in respect of every Financial year cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament an Annual Financial Statement / Budget.

Article 123 : The President has the power to make Ordinance when either of the two houses is not in Session.

Article 124 : Persons who has been a Judge of the Supreme Court should not plead or act in any court in India.

Article 125 : The salary and allowances of Judges of Supreme Court shall not be altered to their disadvantage after their appointment.General Studies Question Bank CD

Article 126 : When the office of Chief Justice of India ( CJI ) is vacant the duties of Chief Justice of India shall be performed by the Judges of the Supreme Court as President may appoint for the purpose.

Article 127 : If the Supreme Court is facing difficulty to hold its session due to lack of quorum of Judges, the Chief Justice of India may with the previous consent of the President and Chief Justice of the State concerned, request a Judge of a High Court to sit as adhoc Judge in the Supreme Court. The adhoc Judge shall receive salaries and allowances available to a Judge of the Supreme Court.

Article 131 : Tells about the original Jurisdiction – relating to Fundamental Rights.

Article 132 : Appellate Jurisdiction – Constitutional : In the constitutional matters an appeal lies to the Supreme Court if the High Court certifies that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution.

Article 133 : Appellate Jurisdiction – Civil : In the civil case an appeal lies to the Supreme Court if a High Court certifies that the value of the subject matter of the dispute is not less than ₹ 20,000/-.

Article 134 : Appellate Jurisdiction – Criminal : A person make appeal to the Supreme Court if the High Court has sentenced the accused to death.

Article 136 : Supreme Court enjoys the power of granting special leave to appeal from any Judgement, order or sentence in any case except court martials.

Article 137 Revisory Jurisdiction : Supreme Court is empowered to review any Judgement.

Article 138 : The President is empowered to refer to the Supreme Court for its opinion regarding treaty and agreements. In such case Supreme Court has to give its opinion.

Article 143 : States that Government can refer any question of Public importance to the Supreme Court for seeking its opinion.

Article 153 : There shall be a Governor for each State.

Article 154 : The Executive power of the state is vested with the Governor.

Article 155 : Governor shall be appointed by President by a warrant under his hand and seal.

Article 156 : Governor holds his office for five years but he holds office during the pleasure of the President.

Article 157 : Qualification of Governor ( Minimum age 35 )

Article 158 : Conditions for Governor’s office.

Article 159 : The oath of the office of the Governor is administered by the Chief Justice of the State and in his absence the senior – most Judge of that Court should perform.

Article 165 : The Governor appoints the Advocate General to advise the Government on legal matters and the latter hold the office during the pleasure of the Governor.

Article 166 : All Executive actions are to be taken in the name of the Governor.

Article 168 : States shall have Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council. .

Article 214 : There shall be a High Court for each State.

Article 215 : Every High Court shall be a Court of record.

Article 216 : Every High Court consist of a Chief Justice and other Judges as appointed by the President.

Article 222 : Judge of a High Court can be transferred from on High Court to another without his consent.

Article 226 : High Courts has the power of issuing writs in nature of Habeas Corpus, etc. and their violation.

Article 227 : The High Court controls and supervise the working the Sub – ordinate courts.

Article 229 : Every High Court has been ensured a complete control over the member of its staff. Article 235 High Court exercise control over the District Courts or Sub – ordinate Courts in matters of postings, promotion etc.

Article 249 : Parliament is empowered to make laws with respect every matter enumerated in the State List if the Rajy Sabha passes a resolution by 2 / 3rd majority that it necessary in national interest.

Article 250 : The Parliament can give direction to the State during National Emergency.

General Studies Question Bank CD
Article 253 : Parliament can make laws even on State List to comply with the International Agreements.

Article 280 : Provides for the appointment of a Finance Commission.

Article 299 : All the officers of the Union shall be the subordinate of the President. President has the power to appoint or remove the high dignitaries of the State.

Article 300 ( A ) : No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.

Article 301 : freedom of Trade and Commerce.

Article 312 : Parliament is empowered to create one or more “All India Services” if Rajya Sabha declares by a resolution supported by 2 / 3rd majority.

Article 315 : Says that there shall be a Public Service Commission for Union and States.

Article 316 : The Chairman of the Service Commission should be, appointed by the President and by the Governors of the States.

Article 326 : States that election to the House of the People and to State Legislature Assemblies should be on the basis of Adult Franchise.

Article 329 ( b ) : There was a specific bar on courts from interfering into the matters of Election Commission, once the process was initiated and till its completion.

Article 331 : The President can nominate two members from Anglo-Indian Community to the Lower Houses.

Article 335 : The claims of SC / STs shall be taken into consideration for maintenance of efficiency of administration in making appointments to services and posts in Union or of a State.

Article 343 : Declares that Official Language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari Script, but English shall continue to be used for all official purposes.

Article 350(A) : Every State and. every local authority within the State should provide adequate facilities for the instruction in the Mother tongue at the primary stage to children.

Article 351 : Promotes the spread of Hindi language.

Article 352 : National Emergency for whole or a part of India. The Lok Sabha in a special sitting can disapprove the continuance of a National Emergency proclaimed by President.

Article 355 : The Union has to protect every State against external aggression and internal disturbance and to ensure that the Government of every State is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

Article 356 : If President’s Rule is imposed, the power of the Legislature comes under the authority of the Parliament,

Article 358 : Part III of the Constitution contains a long list of Fundamental Rights, described as the “Corner Stone of the Constitution” is subject to be amended under

Article 368 : Article 359 It empowers the President to suspend any or all the Fundamental Rights during National Emergency.

Article 360 : If financial emergency is declared by the President, during the Financial Stability or credibility of India or any of its units is threatened, all the money bills passed by the State falls under the control of the Centre.

Creation of Small States

  • Andhra Pradesh : Created by the State of Andhra Pradesh Act, 1953 by carving out some areas from the State of Madras.
  • Gujarat and Maharashtra : The State of Bombay was divided into two states i.e., Maharashtra and Gujarat by the Bombay ( Reorganisation ) Act, 1960.
  • Kerala : It comprised of Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi areas created by the State Reorganisation Act 1956.
  • Karnataka : Created from the Princely State of Mysore by the State Reorganisation Act 1956. It has been renamed Karnataka in 1973.
  • Nagaland : It was carved out from the State of Assam by the State of Nagaland Act, 1962.
  • Haryana : It was carved out from the State of Punjab by the Punjab (Reorganisation) Act, 1966.
  • Himachal Pradesh : The Union Territory of Himachal Pradesh was elevated to the status of State by the State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970.
  • Meghalaya : First carved out as a sub – state within the State of Assam by 23rd Constitutional Amendment, 1969.
  • Later, in 1971, it received the status of a full – fledged State by the North – Eastern Areas ( Reorganisation ) Act, 1971.
  • Manipur and Tripura : Both these States were elevated from the status of Union Territories by the North – Eastern Areas ( Reorganisation ) Act, 1975.
  • Sikkim : Sikkim was given first the status of Associate State by the 35th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1974. It got the status of a full State in 1975 by the 13th Amendment Act, 1975.
  • Mizoram : It was elevated to the status of a full State by the Mizoram Act, 1986.
  • Arunachal Pradesh : It received the status of a full State by the State of Arunachal Pradesh Act, 1986.
  • Goa : Goa was separated from the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu and was made a full – fledged State by the Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act, 1987. But Daman and Diu remained as Union Territory.
  • Chattisgarh : Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act 2000 by dividing Madhya Pradesh on 1st November, 2000.
  • Uttarakhand : Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act 2000 by dividing Uttar Pradesh on 9th November, 2000.
  • Jharkhand : Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act 2000 by dividing Bihar on 15th November, 2000.


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