Cloning in Humans

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Cloning in Humans.

Refers to copying the genes and other pieces of chromosomes to generate enough identical individuals.

The three different types of cloning are:

Embryo cloning: This is a medical technique which produces monozygotic (identical) twins or triplets.

It duplicates the process that nature uses to produce twins or triplets.

One or more cells are removed from a fertilized embryo and encouraged to develop into one or more duplicate embryos.

Twins or triplets are thus formed, with identical DNA.

This has been done for many years on various species of animals; only very limited experimentation has been done on humans.

Adult DNA cloning: This is a technique which is intended to produce a duplicate of an existing animal.

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It has been used to clone a sheep and other mammals.

The DNA from an ovum is removed and replaced with the DNA from a cell removed from an adult animal.

Then the fertilized ovum, now called a pre-embryo, is implanted in a womb and allowed to develop into a new animal.

Therapeutic cloning: This is a procedure whose initial stages are identical to adult DNA cloning.

However, the stem cells are removed from the pre-embryo with the intent of producing tissue or a whole organ for transplant back into the person who supplied the DNA.

The pre-embryo dies in the process. The goal of therapeutic cloning is to produce a healthy copy of a sick person’s tissue or organ for transplant.

This technique would be vastly superior to relying on organ transplant from other people.

The supply would be unlimited, so there would be no waiting lists.

The tissue or organ would have the sick person’s original DNA; the patient would not have to take immunosuppressant drugs for the rest of their life, as is now required after transplants.

There would not be any danger of organ rejection.

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